Real McCoys Mon, 05 Apr 2021 08:47:20 +0000 en-US hourly 1 Real McCoys 32 32 5 monetary market traits to look at underneath the Biden administration Mon, 05 Apr 2021 08:01:57 +0000

There are a number of explanation why we anticipate extra attention-grabbing developments within the capital markets all through 2021, each regulatory and in transactions. With a Democratic administration and a brand new chairman of the Securities and Trade Fee with an extended historical past of regulatory oversight, there’ll possible be extra rule-making in america and extra consideration to enforcement.

Listed here are 5 traits that we imagine will dominate monetary markets in 2021.

1. Continued deal with ESG

New developments abound within the space of ​​environmental, social and company governance (ESG) and sustainability from customary setters, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), advisory service suppliers, ranking businesses, institutional traders and asset managers. The non-public sector has led this march in direction of sustainable finance and investing largely as a result of the requirements and parameters upon which efficiency or disclosure may be primarily based haven’t but been universally adopted and accepted. The SEC has now made it an space of ​​focus, so anticipate to see regulation on this later within the yr.

2. Ongoing assault on the standard IPO book-making course of

Within the late Nineteen Nineties and early twenty first century, a number of preliminary auction-based public choices prompted the market to query whether or not the standard technique of e-book constructing would survive in the long run, nevertheless it caught largely to the standard mannequin. . Enter Direct Lists and Particular Objective Acquisition Firms (SPAC).

The success of some current direct itemizing secondary choices has began to float away from conventional IPOs and has prompted some corporations contemplating IPOs to rethink their technique, arguing that conventional underwritten provides go away an excessive amount of cash in the marketplace. desk with the “IPO rebate” transaction prices. The NYSE finalized rule adjustments permitting corporations to make main provides utilizing the direct itemizing technique and the Nasdaq handed comparable rule adjustments permitting direct listings.

Will direct direct listings finally threaten the standard underwritten IPO? This yr might make clear whether or not this new provide construction will acquire floor, if the market will not be eclipsed by the continued energy of the PSPC market.

3. Firms are beginning to reap the benefits of current SEC guidelines

In 2020, the SEC modified its guidelines in a number of areas, similar to requiring full monetary info to be included in SEC filings, “testing the waters” and simplifying disclosure. These new developments, together with the streamlining of personal provide exemptions and the current extension of the A + threshold, ought to make elevating ‘public’ capital extra engaging to companies – affecting the debt and fairness markets. These adjustments may be refined, however rule-making initiatives have been necessary steps in eliminating a number of challenges some corporations face in elevating capital or staying public.

4. Legal responsibility administration operations and pre-packs

Many corporations with public debt, particularly these severely affected by the Covid-19 pandemic, should meet their commitments in addition to their liquidity wants and be pressured to interact in legal responsibility administration operations with their title holders. Choices embrace swap bids, money takeover bids, solicitations of consent and repackaged reorganization plans. The constructions and authorized regime relevant to those transactions haven’t modified a lot for the reason that Nineteen Eighties. Nonetheless, the debt takeover bid guidelines have been streamlined because of a letter of no motion from the SEC from 2015, and different methods that had been beforehand of concern are actually customary in lots of trade provides.

Firms with steadiness sheet or liquidity issues have additionally sought aid within the inventory markets by way of convertible debt provides and rights provides. The dilution attributable to these emissions is commonly offset by the aid granted. We anticipate 2021 to see a wide range of restructurings that can check some conventional transaction constructions.

5. The challenges of double class voting share constructions will proceed.

Company governance of IPO corporations will stay on the forefront of inside strategic discussions, with an emphasis on the acceptability of twin class voting constructions by which shares bought to the general public have fewer voting rights. than the shares saved by the founders / insiders. Nonetheless, main asset managers oppose capital constructions with share lessons having a number of votes. Index suppliers typically don’t embrace shares of corporations with a number of voting share lessons of their indexes, which makes them harder to market.

US inventory exchanges enable these constructions, however many international exchanges don’t, which inspires “discussion board procuring” between exchanges, particularly for international corporations. Current proposed adjustments to London’s enrollment guidelines that will enable two-class constructions may even be a enjoying area. Assist has grown for center floor, with two-class constructions managed by sundown provisions and different limitations.

… and the disruptor with 5 tendencies

A phenomenon has erupted in fairness capital markets that will eclipse all earlier traits: the rise of the person investor and the ability of social media. This was evidenced by the current surge in buying and selling costs for some shares, spurred by a wave of shopping for largely motivated by retail traders with a publicly introduced mission to press traders who wager in opposition to these shares. The SEC has introduced its intention to research these actions and we’ve not heard the tip of this story.

This column doesn’t essentially mirror the opinion of the Workplace of Nationwide Affairs, Inc. or its house owners.

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Writer Information

Barbara a jones is a member of the International Capital Markets and International Mergers & Acquisitions follow teams of Greenberg Traurig LLP. She is the coordinator of the agency’s Covid-19 Interdisciplinary Financial Stimulation Working Group, Co-Chair of the Blockchain & Digital Property Interdisciplinary Observe Group, and coordinates its Battle Minerals Compliance Initiative.

Marc M. Rossell is Co-President of the Latin America division of Greenberg Traurig LLP and a member of the Firm’s International Capital Markets division. He focuses on monetary market transactions, together with fairness and debt choices and structured finance.

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NEPZA boss, others advocate for a viable free commerce space Sun, 04 Apr 2021 07:52:22 +0000

By Franca Ochigbo, Abuja

Free commerce areas are financial engines wherever they exist. These are the submissions made by some consultants who’ve adopted the tendencies in growth.

Instances previous when the indices of growth, development and viability of countries have been measured on the idea of strong infrastructure. The parameters have modified barely to incorporate per capita revenue capital, equipped by the nationwide home product (PND) and gross home product (GDP) respectively. These financial trajectories resemble rockets in that they propel themselves transparently with no particular consideration for the international locations lagging behind.

No, the trajectories once more, have gone past easy concerns of infrastructure, nationwide home product and gross home product of nations to incorporate the exterior reserves (ER) and human capability sources (HCR) of countries. Judging from the above, there isn’t a doubt that our nation has continued to rise to the problem of assembly these international financial expectations.

Nonetheless, thanks are because of the United Nations and different growth businesses which have and have continued to increase a plethora of financial interventions to creating economies, albeit with minimal impressions because of the Herculean nature of those deficits.

Past the easy definition of socio-political and financial targets, growth can solely happen when the ideas of results-oriented growth have developed, are understood and could be utilized throughout the framework of a selected conceptualization and of public acceptability. The free commerce space regime is subsequently a superb instance of a worldwide growth mannequin able to propelling industrialization in creating economies.

In mild of this, creating international locations like China, Brazil, Malaysia, Taipei, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Dubai to be extra exact, South Africa, Kenya, Egypt and lots of others have lengthy since discovered financial respites within the functioning of the world.

There is no such thing as a doubt that the idea of free commerce space stays a beautiful international financial idea that promotes overseas direct funding (FDI), native direct funding (IDD), manufacturing and manufacturing, employment, revenue, switch of infrastructure with industrialization as the final word finish product. It’s certainly a one-stop-shop business ecosystem the place operators and traders are exempt from taxes, levies and duties within the space to advertise exports.

Nigeria has by no means been judged inadequate in coverage formulation, conceptualization or adoption. The constraint has at all times been an apparent lack of political will to religiously implement such a coverage. The nation, like its friends talked about above, endorsed the idea of a free commerce zone in 1992 when the Nigeria Processing Zones Authority (NEPZA) was established by an Act of Parliament to supervise the system.

The respite, nevertheless, got here when President Muhammadu Buhari returned from a program’s website go to to China in 2016. The Chinese language authorities had throughout the interval of isolation the nation used the idea of a zone to develop its infrastructure, reorganized the economic system at a aggressive stage which as we speak represents a need of the world.

President Buhari needed to rapidly reassess NEPZA and its workforce in an try and strengthen it to copy China’s free commerce space mannequin.

As a servant who understands the thoughts of his grasp, Professor Adesoji Adesugba, himself a famend worldwide funding promoter, has been put within the saddle by the President because the Managing Director / CEO of NEPZA to speed up all processes that would facilitate success. of the plan.

As a measure of dedication to the success of this system and past bettering the funds allocation for NEPZA, the President went additional to approve six Particular Financial Zones (SEZs) within the six geopolitical zones of the nation. . These areas, as soon as totally developed, would alter the present obscurity of the nation’s growth.

Professor Adesugba, when taking workplace on July 1, 2020, spoke of 5 precedence areas, together with medical / pharmaceutical, know-how, agriculture, mining and tourism. The tireless Managing Director has completely interwoven these aforementioned areas to gas these six Particular Financial Zones accredited by the President.

Already, tangible steps have been taken to start growth of three of the particular zones accredited for the 12 months anticipated to be sighted in Lagos, Kwara and Katsina states respectively. These of Ebonyi, Benue and Sokoto would represent the second section of implementation.

As well as, the Authority obtained the certificates of occupancy for 500 hectares for the particular medical financial zone and 276 hectares for the agro-allied particular financial zone respectively on March 10 in Ilorin.

The boss of NEPZA had described Kwara State as an enthralling funding vacation spot whereas making his comment occasionally.

Adesugba had hinged his comment on what he referred to as: “the flagrant enchancment of infrastructure within the state by Governor Abdulrahman Abdulrazaq”, which he mentioned has elevated the state’s worth as an funding vacation spot. “magnetic”.

Abdulrasaq defined that the free commerce space creates distinctive alternatives globally, including that Kwara will totally take part in this system to spice up wealth.

Whereas the Lekki axis of Lagos would home the medical particular financial zone, the Katsina particular financial zone can be seen in Funtau as a cloth zone. Plans are additionally underway to permit Funtau SEZ to warehouse medical SEZ and different associated industries.

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Prime 10 greatest camouflage clothes for ladies 2021 – Bestgamingpro Fri, 02 Apr 2021 00:30:23 +0000

Prime 10 greatest camouflage clothes for ladies 2021

1. Ladies’s Plum Cross V Neck MIDI Costume KDR44322X 10188 Camouflage 2X

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2. Modern maxi skirt costume with EEVEE printed fold-over belt (camouflage, one dimension)

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  • Trendy and cozy lengthy skirt costume, very stretchy and printed
  • Good high quality, peach pore and pores and skin materials, double brushed
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5.LONGYUAN ladies swimsuit swimsuit cover-ups for center summer time costume, camouflage

  • at ?? ¤ ã € ?? dimension ã € ‘x-small / us 2-4, small / us 4-6, medium / us Eight-10, large / us 12-14, x-large / us 16-18, xx-large / us 20.
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  • at ?? ¤ ã € ?? acceptable seaside / casual / celebration / buying / work / outside / residence / wedding ceremony ceremony / buying / bohemian sort occasion. a lot of secure shade and floral garments there in your alternative. add to your search file, we’ll change a brand new shade each week.

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8.LONGYUAN Ladies L-6XL Plus Measurement Lengthy Sleeve Informal Maxi Costume with Pockets 3XL, Camouflage

  • at ?? ¤ ã € ?? dimension ã € ‘large / us12-14, x-large / us 16-18, xx-large / us 20-22, 3x-large / us 24, 4x-large / us 26, 5x-large / us 28, 6x -great / us 30.
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  • at ?? ¤ 95% rayon + 5% elastane, very clean and cozy
  • – consideration 1: the “white” and “white flowered” swimsuit appears to be somewhat seen by way of, the lawyer placed on a nude or lighter bra or underwear, and the “white” swimsuit is barely heavier than the alternative colours, please discover out earlier than you place an order. Consideration 2: Relating to the floral costume, “the floral print” is random, we could not make sure the place of the floral print on every dre…
  • Appropriate occasion: casual / celebration / work / seaside / outside / residence / wedding ceremony ceremony / buying / vacation sort.Good for spring and fall.Many secure shade and floral clothes there at your alternative. add to your search file, we’ll change a brand new shade each week.

9.ICONOFLASH 3/4 Sleeve Camouflage Bodycon Midi Costume for Ladies – Spherical Neck Bodycon Maxi Attire

  • Curvy Match: Salute your curves on this camouflage bodycon midi swimsuit. matches completely in all the suitable locations whereas supporting comfort all day lengthy. order true to dimension for a sexy skinny match or dimension for a relaxed match that modestly accentuates your curves
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  • Very good Comfort: A shaving match with unbelievable comfort and ease of use, would not be actually tight or restrictive. so comfy you may sleep in it!
  • Journey Effectively: Skinny to pack and laborious to crumple, this camouflage skinny swimsuit can merely be tossed straight right into a suitcase to be worn with minimal effort

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SPAC Lists – Lexology Thu, 01 Apr 2021 10:55:52 +0000

Particular Function Acquisition Firms (SPAC, or “clean test” firms), that are shell firms created for the only real function of elevating funds by an preliminary public providing (IPO) to amass an organization. current goal firm, have seen a dramatic enhance up to now yr. Excessive ranges of liquidity and persistently low rates of interest, coupled with a rising investor urge for food for larger yield funding alternatives, have fueled rising curiosity in PPCS. In keeping with the SpacInsider useful resource web site, which tracks these funding autos, 248 SPAC IPOs have been accomplished up to now yr alone, elevating US $ 83 billion, up from 216 from 2009 to 2019. This text discusses traits of PSPC, its advantages and dangers, in addition to developments in Asia in addition to the way forward for PSPC in Singapore.

How PSPCs Work

PSPCs are shell firms usually shaped by sponsors with experience in a selected business or enterprise sector, with the intention of coming into into agreements in that space. On the time of their IPO, PSPCs didn’t have any current enterprise operations or acknowledged acquisition targets. After the IPO raises capital, the funds raised are positioned in an interest-bearing belief account till the PSPC sponsors determine a goal (usually a non-public firm looking for to go public by a merger or a enterprise mixture). As soon as a goal firm is recognized and a merger is introduced, the proposed merger (also referred to as de-SPAC) is put to a vote by the PSPC shareholders. PSPC buyers can both change their shares for shares of the merged entity or purchase again their PSPC shares earlier than the de-SPAC transaction closes to recoup their authentic funding, plus curiosity accrued whereas that cash was in belief. . PSPC sponsors usually obtain an approximate 20% stake within the merged entity with nominal invested capital. PSPC sponsors even have a deadline by which they need to come to an appropriate settlement, often inside about two years of the IPO. In any other case, the SPAC is liquidated and the proceeds from the IPO are returned to the general public shareholders.

Advantages and Dangers

SPAC IPOs have a number of benefits over conventional IPOs, as mentioned under:

a) Sooner time to market – a SPAC itemizing will be accomplished in six weeks, in comparison with round six months or extra for a standard IPO. The accelerated lead time is a key profit provided that there isn’t any certainty as to what market circumstances can be like six months down the highway, particularly if the inventory markets are close to report highs and weak to break down.

b) Diminished transaction prices – PSPC transactions are cheaper than a standard IPO, which includes extra paperwork and a extra rigorous verification course of. In contrast to a standard IPO, there may be additionally no must pay an underwriting charge throughout a PSPC IPO.

vs) Better certainty in pricing – PSPCs present goal companies with higher certainty concerning the funding they may obtain. In a standard IPO, there isn’t any such certainty that the quantity raised relies on the value of the IPO by funding bankers, which in flip is predicated on their judgment of what the market is doing. pays for the shares of the corporate.

re) Cut back obstacles to entry – PSPCs have the benefit of having the ability to bypass the standard necessities of conventional IPOs resembling the necessity to have a monetary or operational historical past.

e) Leverage skilled sponsors – PSPCs have the flexibility to leverage the administration experience of an skilled sponsor to assist the goal enterprise develop its enterprise.

F) Alternative for retail buyers to take part in early stage and excessive development firms – From the perspective of particular person buyers, PSPCs provide them the chance to take part in personal fairness sort investments (usually reserved for accredited or institutional buyers) through a listed safety.

Regardless of its benefits, PSPCs are usually not free from inherent dangers and risks. A few of the frequent criticisms leveled towards PSPCs are:

a) Lack of disclosure / transparency – From an investor perspective, it must be famous that the due diligence / disclosure strategy of the PSPC itemizing just isn’t as rigorous as that of a standard IPO. Given that there’s little monetary data, no clear marketing strategy or working historical past that buyers can depend on, retail buyers would largely rely upon the SPAC sponsors, with whom they’ve restricted information.

b) Unattractive worth proposition – Traders must be conscious that they’re in reality subsidizing the SPAC sponsors, who will obtain their stake within the merged entity with nominal invested capital. This could imply that the share value of the merged entity ought to do very nicely for buyers to profit from de-SPAC, whereas sponsors will profit even when the share value disappoints.

vs) Lack of incentive from sponsors to get the most effective deal – The danger to buyers could also be compounded by the truth that the sponsors are accountable for figuring out an achievable acquisition goal and finalizing the merger inside two years – this might lead the sponsors to sue with a goal firm of poor high quality or overpaying for this lens. . Beneath these circumstances, it may be argued that sponsors might not have enough incentive to make the absolute best deal for PSPC.

Market developments

Whereas the PSPC craze has to date been centered in america, this curiosity in PSPCs now seems to be shifting to Asia, with the shift being fueled by the massive variety of unlisted unicorns within the area, together with turn-hail, supply and digital cost firms Seize and Gojek and e-commerce giants Lazada, Tokopedia and Bukalapak.

In Asia, solely South Korea and Malaysia at the moment permit itemizing of PSPCs. The exchanges in Hong Kong and Singapore appear to take divergent approaches with regards to PSPC listings. The Hong Kong Inventory Trade, one of many world’s main IPO locations alongside New York and Shanghai, has lengthy been skeptical of non-traditional IPO listings, citing issues concerning the skill of firms to entry IPO funds with out scrutiny, and has tightened in recent times. its guidelines on backdoor lists and shell actions.

Then again, the Singapore Inventory Trade (SGX) has introduced, within the face of rising curiosity in SPAC listings, that it’s going to quickly launch a public session train with business gamers to think about permitting PSPCs to be licensed. register in Singapore this yr. This follows an earlier spherical of consultations in 2010, throughout which there was inadequate urge for food for such affords amongst companies and buyers.

Way forward for SPAC Inscriptions in Singapore

The itemizing of PSPCs seems to be a promising possibility that would pave the best way for SGX to rekindle investor curiosity within the Singapore inventory market, which has struggled to draw large-value IPOs and suffered a sequence of radiation in recent times. Nonetheless, for Singapore to understand its potential as a regional hub for PSPCs, regulators should strike the appropriate stability in guaranteeing that safeguards are in place to mitigate the risks inherent in PSPCs for retail buyers with out decreasing the dangers. benefits of PSPC lists.

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China’s Chongqing Free Zone Sees Booming Market Entity Registrations Thu, 01 Apr 2021 08:28:20 +0000

The Pilot Free Commerce Zone (FTZ) in southwest China’s Chongqing Municipality has seen a rise in market entity registrations over the previous 4 years, with rising industries gaining share. lion, in accordance with the municipal commerce fee.

CHONGQING (UrduPoint / Pakistan Level Information – April 1, 2021): The Pilot Free Commerce Zone (FTZ) in Chongqing Municipality in southwest China has seen a rise in market entity registrations in previously 4 years, rising industries accounting for the lion’s share, in accordance with the municipal commerce fee.

Greater than 50,000 companies have been established within the pilot Chongqing FTA since its inception in 2017, Zhang Zhikui, director of the municipal commerce fee, stated at a press briefing on Wednesday.

Greater than 75% of newly registered firms are engaged in transportation, data transmission, laptop software program and providers, and high-tech industries, Zhang added.

The Chongqing pilot free zone is now house to 1 / 4 of the municipality’s international commerce enterprises, contributing round 70% of its international commerce quantity and attracting greater than 40% of international direct funding.

The municipality was permitted in February as an entry level for imported medication. It’s the solely port of entry of this sort in western China and the fourth on the Chinese language mainland after Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou.

It was additionally added to an inventory of China’s border ports, permitting eligible worldwide vacationers in transit to take pleasure in a visa-free 144-hour keep in 2019.

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Every day Mirror – WindForce IPO attracts Rs 25.7 billion apps Thu, 01 Apr 2021 03:49:00 +0000

  • CSE says this demonstrates a robust urge for food for IPOs amongst traders

WindForce Restricted’s preliminary public providing (IPO) of three.2 billion rupees, the most important IPO introduced on the Colombo Inventory Alternate (CSE) since 2011, has attracted requests price 25.7 billion of rupees, the Colombo Inventory Alternate (CSE) mentioned yesterday in a short assertion.

In response to the alternate, this demonstrates the sturdy urge for food for IPOs amongst traders within the Sri Lankan inventory market. The corporate’s preliminary public providing for 202,615,341 shares, at a problem value of Rs 16.00 per share, was oversubscribed eight occasions on the preliminary day.

WindForce Restricted is anticipated to begin buying and selling on the CSE Major Board on the finish of April 2021. “The corporate’s utility for itemizing was accepted by the CSE in a document three weeks, in accordance with the latest overhaul of the CSE of the itemizing course of to raised meet the financing wants of listed firms.

The initiative has streamlined the method, eradicated redundant approval steps, deserted a twin approval course of, diminished documentation, and improved time to marketplace for new and subsequent fairness and debt choices, ” provides the press launch.

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Do We Need Mask Mandates? Wed, 31 Mar 2021 16:33:38 +0000

Joe Biden has counted on face masks to control the Covid-19 pandemic. On his first day in office, the president issued an executive order requiring masks on federal property and called for their widespread use for 100 days. More recently, the Centers for Disease Control has mandated masks on airplanes and mass transit, though most airlines and transit systems already require them.

These recommendations mark the latest step in a thorough reversal of the pre-pandemic public-health consensus that masks are useless or counterproductive. Yet the evidence underlying this reversal turns out to be quite weak. Widespread use of masks throughout the United States and Europe has failed to stop massive pandemic waves in the fall and winter. Preliminary signs also suggest that mask mandates may be causing considerable harm. Several state governments have recently rescinded their mask mandates, and a look at the science suggests that more should consider following.

Researchers have investigated masks for disease protection since the discovery, in the late nineteenth century, that many respiratory pathogens spread in droplets of exhaled moisture that follow ballistic paths extending a few yards. It seemed logical that a device to block relatively large droplets could also block smaller pathogens, both protecting wearers and serving as “source control,” stopping them from infecting others.

Later research has shown, however, that respiratory droplets obey a more complicated set of physical laws. In particular, once exhaled, they shrink rapidly through evaporation. One widely cited model estimates that droplets with diameters smaller than about 100 microns (a micron is a thousandth of a millimeter) evaporate before reaching the ground, leaving their contents as long-lasting aerosols; particles smaller than about five microns can stay aloft indefinitely and travel beyond droplet range. Individual coronaviruses are about 0.1 microns across, smaller than the pores of surgical masks (0.3 microns to 10 microns) and minuscule compared to those of cloth masks (80 microns to 500 microns).

In practice, other factors can inhibit complete droplet evaporation. But evaporation still reduces relatively large droplets to sizes small enough to stay airborne. And numerous case studies, such as a choir practice in which one singer infected dozens of members beyond droplet range, show that airborne Covid-19 transmission takes place—as does rare outdoor transmission, as outdoor air currents rapidly clear away aerosols but have little effect on droplets. So while masks may stop short-range, face-to-face spread from large droplets, they are likely less effective—and perhaps completely ineffective—at stopping airborne spread from aerosols.

It’s instructive to compare the first two epidemics involving wide usage of masks. To combat the Manchurian Plague, a bacterial epidemic in northern China in the winter of 1910-11, the doctor Wu Lien-Teh devised a cloth mask that tightly covered the nose and mouth. A report found that “the careful use of the mask appeared to confer absolute protection.” But masks proved far less useful in the subsequent 1918 Spanish flu, a viral disease spread by pathogens smaller than bacteria. California’s Department of Health, for instance, reported that the cities of Stockton, which required masks, and Boston, which did not, had scarcely different death rates, and so advised against mask mandates except for a few high-risk professions such as barbers. The Surgeon General of the United States Navy warned that masks were “designed only to afford protection against a direct spray from the mouth” and could even spread disease if used improperly. The epidemiologist Warren Vaughan used even blunter terms: “Certainly the face mask as extensively used during the 1918 epidemic was of little benefit and in many cases was, without doubt, a decided detriment.”

Nevertheless, doctors have continued to study the use of masks to protect against viral diseases. The studies vary widely, starting with the populations they consider—many studies use hospital workers as subjects, and their results may not generalize perfectly to nonhospital environments with different balances of aerosol and droplet transmission. Studies also differ in the type of masks they consider: some consider surgical masks, others makeshift cloth masks, still others N95 masks, which seal tightly around the mouth and nose. The latter protect the wearer well if worn correctly, but they are more expensive and limited in supply, are uncomfortable and difficult to wear correctly, and generally do not filter exhalations, thus providing no source-control benefit. Most discussions about mask mandates for the public have thus focused on cloth or surgical masks. Cloth masks, for their part, have proved far inferior to surgical masks in tests of filtration efficacy. One large randomized trial found that hospital workers who wore cloth masks were 6.6 times as likely to contract flu-like illnesses as those who wore surgical masks—a difference that the study authors speculated may be because cloth masks confer greater infection risk than no mask at all.

Some studies directly test whether masks filter air particles, either on volunteers connected to breath analyzers or on mannequin heads with breathing simulators. These studies show widely varying effectiveness. Other limitations on their real-world applicability exist, too: the fit of a mask in a supervised study or on a mannequin is likely better than in real-world use; experiments often last only a few minutes; and simulated breath likely degrades mask performance more slowly than real, humid breath. (One influential 2006 paper on influenza control claims that masks quickly become ineffective as “the pores in the mask become blocked by moisture from breathing.”)

Furthermore, few studies look specifically at the particles with diameters five microns or smaller that are responsible for airborne transmission. The studies that do examine those particles give equivocal results. One small study found that surgical masks filter exhaled particles smaller than five microns for volunteers sick with mild coronaviruses (based on a sample of only 17 patients), but not flu viruses or rhinoviruses. Another 2009 study tested filtration rates for five FDA-approved surgical masks fitted to mannequin heads with exhalation simulators. They provided widely varying and generally highly imperfect filtration, with the worst mask letting through more than 90 percent of particles in the 0.1–0.4-micron range in one test, even though masks were sealed to the mannequin’s face with silicone, providing far better filtration than real-world use. The authors concluded that “surgical masks should not be used for respiratory protection.”

Real-world studies, mostly focusing on protection rather than source control, are also equivocal. Some observational studies seem positive: for instance, one study of SARS in Beijing found that 94 SARS survivors were far less likely to have worn masks outside the home than 281 residents in their areas who had not contracted SARS. A study of Covid-19 among 124 families in Beijing found that wearing masks before the first household member showed symptoms was associated with a 79 percent lower transmission rate.

Observational studies such as these, however, have severe limitations. Mask-wearers are more likely to be conscientious and take other precautions whose effects can be confounded with those of masks. (One finding of the Beijing Covid-19 study suggests that something like this occurred: frequent surface disinfection supposedly reduced household transmission by 77 percent—almost as much as masks—though surface transmission of Covid-19 is now known to be insubstantial.) Observational studies also suffer from “recall bias”: inconsistent mask-wearers may report themselves as not wearing masks if they fell sick, or as wearing masks if they did not.

Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on mask use, generally more reliable than observational studies, though not infallible, typically show that cloth and surgical masks offer little protection. A few RCTs suggest that perfect adherence to an exacting mask protocol may guard against influenza, but meta-analyses find little on the whole to suggest that masks offer meaningful protection. WHO guidelines from 2019 on influenza say that despite “mechanistic plausibility for the potential effectiveness” of masks, studies showed a benefit too small to be established with any certainty. Another literature review by researchers from the University of Hong Kong agrees. Its best estimate for the protective effect of surgical masks against influenza, based on ten RCTs published through 2018, was just 22 percent, and it could not rule out zero effect.

More recent studies back up these results. A November 2020 report by Cochrane, a nonprofit organization that produces authoritative reviews of medical research, notes: “There is low certainty evidence from nine trials (3507 participants) that wearing a mask may make little or no difference to the outcome of influenza-like illness . . . compared to not wearing a mask . . . . There is moderate certainty evidence that wearing a mask probably makes little or no difference to the outcome of laboratory-confirmed influenza compared to not wearing a mask.” The only complete RCT for Covid-19 was also disappointing: a spring 2020 trial in Denmark showed a protective effect statistically indistinguishable from zero.

Public-health authorities justified mask mandates not for personal protection, however, but as a means of stopping wearers from spreading Covid-19—a pressing matter once case studies showed that spreaders may not show symptoms. Since exhaled droplets are larger than inhaled droplets shrunk by evaporation, masks might be better at source control than at personal protection. Indeed, some trials support a source-control effect at least for brief direct exposures: one study shows that surgical masks cut bacterial spread from coughing cystic fibrosis patients by 94 percent.

Other studies have been less promising. First, many studies (summarized by a researcher for the National Institutes of Health) find that exhaled droplets can be small enough to become airborne and slip through mask pores: “most particles in exhaled breath are smaller than 4 [microns], with a median between 0.7 and 1.0 [microns].” These small particles are indeed infectious: one study on influenza viruses in exhaled droplets found that “the fine particles [smaller than 5 microns] contained 8.8 times more viral copies than did the coarse ones.” Another study found that most infectious particles were smaller than one micron.

Studies in hospitals, likewise, have repeatedly shown that surgical masks worn by surgeons do not reduce bacterial wound infections, even though masks might be expected to work best against short-distance transmission of bacteria rather than smaller viruses. One study even found that when surgeons in one British hospital got rid of face masks, the rate of wound infections fell by half. Surgical masks, another study showed, did not reduce bacterial contamination of surfaces in an operating theater. There are several case studies, furthermore, of Covid-19 outbreaks in confined spaces despite good mask adherence, such as one outbreak in a Marine Corps barracks whose residents wore cloth masks almost constantly.

The most powerful evidence, though, comes from comparing Covid-19 in different regions: do areas with mask mandates or widespread mask use see fewer cases? Last spring, the answer seemed to be yes. Many Asian nations, prominently Taiwan, South Korea, Hong Kong, and Japan, had adopted public mask use during SARS in 2003 and readopted it for Covid-19. They saw outbreaks in February that quickly subsided. Japan’s success seemed particularly hard to attribute to anything but masks: the nation saw only weak government interventions, principally a brief, likely ineffective school closure. Some Western nations followed suit, with apparent success. The Czech Republic was the first, thanks to Petr Ludwig, an influential science popularizer, who posted a YouTube video on March 14 urging Czechs to use improvised cloth masks. Poland quickly followed; a social media campaign in late March exhorted Poles to kryj ryj, or “cover your snout.” Both nations escaped the spring wave nearly unscathed.

The subsequent record, though, is less encouraging. Ian Miller, a writer for the lockdown-skeptical website Rational Ground, has compiled dozens of examples of massive outbreaks in U.S. states and other nations with strict mask mandates. His most convincing examples are natural experiments: comparisons of similar jurisdictions, only one of which mandated masks. For instance, North Dakota and South Dakota both largely escaped Covid-19 in spring 2020 but saw large waves of infections in the fall. North Dakota introduced a mask mandate and business closures on November 17, but South Dakota never did. Nevertheless, both states saw nearly identical epidemic curves, with a peak in new cases in mid-November and quick falls thereafter. North and South Dakota now have low rates of new cases and nearly identical total cases and deaths: 133 cases and 1.96 deaths per 1,000 residents in North Dakota, versus 130 and 2.17 in South Dakota, according to data collated by the New York Times as of March 18. Similarly, in the summer and fall, Alabama, which imposed a mask mandate on July 16, had an epidemic curve nearly indistinguishable from its neighbors Georgia and Mississippi, which never did.

The fall coronavirus wave hit several of the mask success stories especially hard. Poland and the Czech Republic had uncontrolled outbreaks (the Czech wave was Europe’s worst for a time); Japan and South Korea, meanwhile, saw more muted surges.

So what accounts for some nations’ initial good fortune? The best explanation may just be luck. Much early Covid-19 spread was caused by a few superspreader events; nations without a superspreader event may simply have managed to avoid an outbreak until better weather reduced transmission. Denmark and Norway, for instance, had tiny first waves, despite loose lockdowns and little mask use.

Another possibility: SARS-CoV-2 is related to several widespread mild coronaviruses, and immune responses to one virus frequently confer some resistance to others. In some studies, more than half of people in Western nations show preexisting immune responses to SARS-CoV-2. Viruses that confer cross-immunity may circulate more strongly in Asia than elsewhere, explaining why not just East Asia but also Indochina—including some nations, such as Cambodia, with weak initial responses—had tiny outbreaks. Similar patterns, with lower death rates near the origin than elsewhere, have occurred in flu pandemics from Asia as well as the misnamed Spanish flu, which started in the United States but had higher mortality in Europe.

The remaining evidence that masks work for source control amounts largely to case studies that could simply be coincidence (Covid-19 patients vary greatly in their infectiousness) and questionable regional comparisons with poor controls for one important fact: the farther an epidemic has progressed, the slower it grows in percent per day, as each newly infected person encounters fewer susceptible others. One widely cited study finds that states that enacted mask mandates in the spring saw lower growth rates in the following weeks—but those states were mostly early hotspots already closer to herd immunity, where one would naturally expect to see decelerating transmission. The same problem affects an influential CDC study finding that, during the summer, Kansas counties with mask mandates had slower growth of Covid-19 cases than those without: mask-mandate counties had seen a large spike in cases just before the mandate went into effect and had consistently higher absolute infection rates.

But even if masks probably don’t help, one might reasonably ask, what’s the harm in requiring them if they might help a bit?

These harms, it turns out, are severely understudied. The Cochrane review of mask RCTs notes, “Harms were rarely measured and poorly reported”—but some are uncontroversial. The Washington Post reported in May, for instance, that masks could cause persistent face rashes. They can also cause headaches: a small Japanese study testing whether surgical masks could stop the spread of colds among health care workers found that mask wearers were almost four times as likely as controls to report headaches. In a self-selected survey of German schoolchildren, more than half of the participants reported headaches.

Unhygienically used masks can also trap moisture and thus promote bacterial and yeast growth. It’s natural to suspect that this promotes other infections: an article in the New York Post, for example, reported that many dentists had observed an increase in problems such as cavities and gingivitis that they attributed to mask wearing. Finally, there is the unknown health effect of fiber inhalation (not to mention environmental plastic pollution). One paper noted that most surgical masks have loose fibers.

Potential harms to children deserve special mention. Two Italian professors of plastic surgery, for instance, have hypothesized that the pressure of elastic ear straps may give children permanently protruding ears. Some child development researchers also worry that widespread mask-wearing may hamper children’s linguistic and emotional development.

There may even be ways by which masks might worsen Covid-19 itself. The basic reason is simple: germs caught by a mask do not simply disappear. The evidence for these is spotty or speculative but concerning enough to merit attention. In any case, the evidence justifying mask mandates is often equally speculative.

First, as Kevin McKernan, a microbiologist who worked on the Human Genome Project, has pointed out, forcing liquid through a porous membrane is a standard “nebulization” technique for producing emulsions of small droplets. McKernan hypothesizes that masks may likewise split large respiratory droplets into more dangerous airborne particles rather than trapping them. This hypothesis has some weak empirical support: multiple studies have found that some low-quality cloth masks increase emission of micron-scale particles, through nebulization or through detaching of particles from cloth threads. These studies, furthermore, last only for minutes, and the risk of pathogen dispersal from masks likely increases with prolonged use. One study of masks in surgery found that exhaled bacteria accumulate on the exterior of masks worn longer than about two hours.

Second, when droplets trapped in a mask dry out—according to speculation by the German doctor Zacharias Fögen—viruses might be re-inhaled as individual particles, penetrating deep into the lungs as well as infecting the olfactory nerve and, thence, possibly the brain, worsening existing Covid-19 cases. Fögen has analyzed Kansas epidemiological data to conclude that counties with mask mandates have a Covid-19 case fatality rate, or ratio of deaths to confirmed infections, 85 percent higher than those without. Fögen’s study is far from dispositive. My own attempt to apply his method to two other states has yielded different conclusions, and other evidence suggests a countervailing hypothesis that even imperfect masks may reduce Covid-19 severity by reducing the number of initially inhaled viruses. But Fögen’s argument is at least plausible enough to justify more attention and attempts at replication.

It would be an overstatement to say that cloth and surgical masks are unambiguously ineffective or harmful. But neither is there a firm case that they provide any meaningful benefit. Limited mask mandates may be justified in circumstances with unavoidable face-to-face contact within the range of droplet spread, such as public transport, and private businesses should be free to require masks if they like. Citizens at high risk should be free to wear effective N95 masks for their own protection, and federal regulators should clear away barriers to domestic production.

But mandates of cloth and surgical masks impose major inconveniences and potentially serious health risks on citizens, for no clear benefit either to themselves or to others. Leaders who pride themselves on following the science should consider ending them and letting citizens protect their health as they see fit.

Photo by Montinique Monroe/Getty Images

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The best dresses for every type of spring day Wed, 31 Mar 2021 16:23:39 +0000

We’ve found the best dresses for spring, from shirt dresses to wrap dresses, midi to maxi – so you can see in the new season in style. 

We’ve long believed that everyone should have at least one staple dress in their arsenal. But having a selection of go-to dresses that you can throw on for every type of occasion this spring? Now that will truly transform your closet.

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JobsOhio grant to help with construction of speculative industrial facility by NorthPoint Development near Dayton airport Wed, 31 Mar 2021 16:22:30 +0000

The new facility will be NorthPoint’s seventh industrial building near the Dayton International Airport. It includes land that was once part of the airport’s tarmac. The former Vandalia fire station on the site will be demolished.

ExploreDeveloper eyes new facility as Crocs and IPM grow; Chewy hires

The Missouri-based NorthPoint has built and opened about 3.3 million square feet of new industrial, warehouse and distribution space around the airport since 2017.

Other industrial park tenants include Crocs, Frito-Lay and Innovative Plastic Molders Inc.

Crocs opened a second distribution facility called the Nile in September near the Dayton International Airport. CORNELIUS FROLIK / STAFF

“Positioned at the crossroads of I-70 and I-75, this development at 251 N. Dixie Drive is poised to capture the opportunities being borne out of the reshoring of production and inventory in the post-COVID economy,” said J.P. Nauseef, JobsOhio president and chief executive.

ExploreSome employers offering $16 an hour for entry level work in Dayton region

The state program includes grants and low-interest loans for “speculative site and building development projects with no identified end user,” according to the news release.

“Our region has a shortage of the Class A industrial space in demand throughout the Midwest,” said Julie Sullivan the coalition’s executive vice president of regional development, in the news release. “This project will help the region remain competitive as we work to attract new companies to the region.”

Follow Lynn Hulsey on Twitter and Facebook

ExploreSee more stories by Lynn Hulsey
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If elected again, Baker said she wants to continue to attract more businesses and residents.”},{“_id”:”HTPY3FGCJ5AZFBRQGYUJBDMHQU”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617047680974},”type”:”text”,”content”:”When asked what she saw as the role of local government, Baker said, “Making the lives of the residents better.””},{“_id”:”VIY46CNLWVBOVFMHOXAGPSPBP4″,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1616870215817},”type”:”text”,”content”:”Baker said she has always been interested in politics and volunteered with her local schools and churches for a long time before becoming involved with the city council.”},{“_id”:”UNNCRDLFTJDHBBBUKJGGFFTCWA”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1616870215818},”type”:”text”,”content”:”“It matters to be a citizen in this community and to be active,” Baker said. “Because it’s never going to get better just complaining about it. Everybody has to pitch in and do their part.””},{“_id”:”HQMGSUW4B5AJHBB2B2MG3V7GFE”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[{“pos”:47,”comment”:”She said her parents built a home in Huber Heights in 1967. “}],”comments”:[],”_id”:1616870215819},”type”:”text”,”content”:”Baker has lived in Huber Heights all her life. She has one adult daughter and works at a local bank in commercial lending.”},{“owner”:{“sponsored”:false,”id”:”coxohio”},”address”:{},”syndication”:{},”caption”:”Joe Hendrix. CONTRIBUTED”,”source”:{“system”:”photo center”,”edit_url”:””,”additional_properties”:{“editor”:”photo center”}},”taxonomy”:{“associated_tasks”:[]},”type”:”image”,”version”:”0.10.3″,”url”:””,”licensable”:false,”credits”:{“affiliation”:[]},”subtitle”:”Joe Hendrix”,”width”:2048,”_id”:”4EGPN7WV75F7DLHIYVUAZWTE7A”,”additional_properties”:{“fullSizeResizeUrl”:”/resizer/rzQnesDoCWdXC6oJaH6GBb6GDBQ=/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-coxohio/public/4EGPN7WV75F7DLHIYVUAZWTE7A.jpg”,”owner”:””,”comments”:[],”iptc_job_identifier”:”O1o8RX9Of3gbjHG0BJxc”,”keywords”:[“”],”proxyUrl”:”/resizer/rzQnesDoCWdXC6oJaH6GBb6GDBQ=/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-coxohio/public/4EGPN7WV75F7DLHIYVUAZWTE7A.jpg”,”originalUrl”:””,”published”:true,”resizeUrl”:”/resizer/rzQnesDoCWdXC6oJaH6GBb6GDBQ=/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-coxohio/public/4EGPN7WV75F7DLHIYVUAZWTE7A.jpg”,”ingestionMethod”:”manual”,”thumbnailResizeUrl”:”/resizer/_VXE5DV6t7EvWiGHAz-YneK1LJY=/300×0/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-coxohio/public/4EGPN7WV75F7DLHIYVUAZWTE7A.jpg”,”version”:0,”usage_instructions”:”FBMD01000a9a0d00004579000067d60000ebd80000d6dc00005c00010020bb010088df010034eb0100f5f9010011710300″,”originalName”:”Joe Hendrix.jpg”,”mime_type”:”image/jpeg”,”restricted”:false,”template_id”:623,”galleries”:[],”_id”:”O3M2NQZUT5AM7JEUGDTQGFXHLU”},”created_date”:”2021-03-26T19:25:33Z”,”last_updated_date”:”2021-03-26T19:25:33Z”,”height”:1536,”image_type”:”photograph”},{“_id”:”SHWCFWPMZRB6DPMQDQK7IEFVMQ”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1616870215820},”type”:”text”,”content”:”Joseph Hendrix“},{“_id”:”I4UB4NT6WZED3CSVRJZVL7UBXU”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1616870215821},”type”:”text”,”content”:”Hendrix, 38, is running on a platform of transparency and listening to the people.”},{“_id”:”NBOXNRTF3RE6DOYODUZ5DXBUOY”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1616870215822},”type”:”text”,”content”:”“Transparency is more than just having information available, it’s making sure that people have that information, and that information is understandable,” Hendrix said.”},{“_id”:”VA7726SUPFBRNOBYPZWMBDYYZY”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1616870215823},”type”:”text”,”content”:”It’s not reasonable to expect everyone to come to city council meetings all the time, Hendrix said. Council members should go out and talk to the people where they are. He has been engaging with people on Facebook while the pandemic is ongoing, he said, but he would eventually like to go out and talk to people in-person.”},{“_id”:”LVQFPIFDKFFRNOUZW4IEU2QEEE”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1616870215825},”type”:”text”,”content”:”He said the council seat was a way to represent the people in the city and get more involved, adding he liked “the kind of politics where you get things done.””},{“_id”:”OGLZW3M6INESVABQAYFG75TQRQ”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1616870215826},”type”:”text”,”content”:”“I just want to see what I can do to make the world a better place,” Hendrix said.”},{“_id”:”CLXCIA6565BEBJZJGLY4OWEGNY”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1616870215827},”type”:”text”,”content”:”Hendrix moved to Huber Heights in 2017. He and his wife, Beth, have two children, ages 3 and 1. He is a software engineer at Northrop Grumman.”},{“owner”:{“sponsored”:false,”id”:”coxohio”},”address”:{},”syndication”:{},”caption”:”Frank Wylie. CONTRIBUTED”,”source”:{“system”:”photo center”,”edit_url”:””,”additional_properties”:{“editor”:”photo center”}},”taxonomy”:{“associated_tasks”:[]},”type”:”image”,”version”:”0.10.3″,”url”:””,”licensable”:false,”credits”:{“affiliation”:[]},”subtitle”:”Frank Wylie”,”width”:259,”_id”:”RG6USQBL5FHJTFSWRUA3HE53IM”,”additional_properties”:{“fullSizeResizeUrl”:”/resizer/_wJ7e2fOOTYrLNJ7C7_1OuqjXGY=/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-coxohio/public/RG6USQBL5FHJTFSWRUA3HE53IM.jpg”,”owner”:””,”comments”:[],”iptc_job_identifier”:”oHVG5W4j4peFXBpj7qnX”,”keywords”:[“”],”proxyUrl”:”/resizer/_wJ7e2fOOTYrLNJ7C7_1OuqjXGY=/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-coxohio/public/RG6USQBL5FHJTFSWRUA3HE53IM.jpg”,”originalUrl”:””,”published”:true,”resizeUrl”:”/resizer/_wJ7e2fOOTYrLNJ7C7_1OuqjXGY=/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-coxohio/public/RG6USQBL5FHJTFSWRUA3HE53IM.jpg”,”ingestionMethod”:”manual”,”thumbnailResizeUrl”:”/resizer/DTCd2JQZ7z0_pztHLz3fQQR3NXg=/300×0/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-coxohio/public/RG6USQBL5FHJTFSWRUA3HE53IM.jpg”,”version”:0,”usage_instructions”:”FBMD0f00076f010000a30600003c120000821300008a150000441d00008d2c0000842d0000″,”originalName”:”frank wylie.jpg”,”mime_type”:”image/jpeg”,”restricted”:false,”template_id”:623,”galleries”:[],”_id”:”737RODH2Q5BJTGP5TMB7IYZ534″},”created_date”:”2021-03-26T19:25:33Z”,”last_updated_date”:”2021-03-26T19:25:33Z”,”height”:273,”image_type”:”photograph”},{“_id”:”7JQ4CI6PL5DVHCJBWKT2V7PKSM”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1616870215828},”type”:”text”,”content”:”Frank Wylie“},{“_id”:”DD6LLDY7RZFNREDOS62VBLSLHE”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1616870215829},”type”:”text”,”content”:”Wylie, 45, attended several city council meetings in his role with the Huber Heights Athletic Foundation, which he said got him interested in running.”},{“_id”:”CUBIJONCNJHFDPPNLT2LR5RGOA”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1616870215830},”type”:”text”,”content”:”He wants to bring transparency, and open and honest government to Huber Heights.”},{“_id”:”3UPYNVLG6JEH5LXQOVCYIFVSOQ”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[{“pos”:65,”comment”:”, and before we know it, there are new taxes, there’s things happening”}],”comments”:[],”_id”:1616870215831},”type”:”text”,”content”:”“For a long time, people just don’t know what’s actually going on,” he said.”},{“_id”:”A5JGJ5I6IBFJFDIGVQBD76PRBY”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1616870215832},”type”:”text”,”content”:”When he was getting signatures to run, Wylie said he also heard from people that they didn’t know who their council member was or thought that person was unapproachable.”},{“_id”:”PZDPPRL5VBDEPJZ4CRCLCPQTKA”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1616870215833},”type”:”text”,”content”:”“I really want to change that,” Wylie said. “I want to be accessible and approachable.””},{“_id”:”IRS6RHHMGBAUZGZBKWQP6RGCZE”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1616870215834},”type”:”text”,”content”:”He said he has connected with people, with COVID-19 precautions, and hopes in the future for more of a town hall format.”},{“_id”:”TKVLT7D63RHMDNNEFOQU2UEWBY”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1616870215835},”type”:”text”,”content”:”He would also like to see the city continue to grow.”},{“_id”:”X2GLD6VJS5BSJIJ3MP4BE2N744″,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1616870215836},”type”:”text”,”content”:”Wylie has lived in Huber Heights since 2011. He and his wife, Holly, have four children. He currently works at Brightview Health, a substance use disorder treatment facility, as a clinical supervisor.”},{“_id”:”LD6KE4UD6NB7PBLUOQTP5AF6PU”,”additional_properties”:{“comments”:[],”_id”:”ZDUJEJ4MHRAW5I6GQQF6TDBH3E”},”type”:”interstitial_link”,”content”:”Three running for Huber Heights mayor”,”url”:””}],”display_date”:”2021-03-30T06:17:00Z”,”headlines”:{“basic”:”3 candidates running for Huber Heights seat in May primary”},”first_publish_date”:”2021-03-30T06:17:00.209Z”,”taxonomy”:{“sections”:[{“path”:””,”parent”:{“default”:””},”_website”:”dayton-daily-news”,”parent_id”:””,”name”:”Local News”,”description”:””,”_id”:””,”additional_properties”:{“original”:{“parent”:{“default”:””,”BottomNav”:”/configsection/links/news-bottom-nav”,”SectionMap”:””,”TopNav”:””,”ComposerNav”:””},”site”:{“section_comments_enabled”:”Yes”,”site_description”:””,”site_title”:”Dayton News | Latest from Dayton area & Miami Valley”},”navigation”:{“nav_title”:”Local”},”inactive”:false,”node_type”:”section”,”_website”:”dayton-daily-news”,”name”:”Local News”,”_id”:””,”ancestors”:{“default”:[“”],”BottomNav”:[“”,”/configsection/links/news-bottom-nav”],”SectionMap”:[“”],”TopNav”:[“”]},”order”:{“+ add”:1013,”default”:1037,”BottomNav”:2001,”SectionMap”:1037,”TopNav”:1002}}},”_website_section_id”:”dayton-daily-news./local”,”type”:”section”,”version”:”0.6.0″},{“path”:”/community”,”parent”:{“default”:””},”_website”:”dayton-daily-news”,”parent_id”:””,”name”:”Community Content”,”description”:””,”_id”:”/community”,”additional_properties”:{“original”:{“parent”:{“default”:””,”SectionMap”:””,”TopNav”:””,”ComposerNav”:””},”site”:{“section_comments_enabled”:”Yes”,”site_description”:””,”site_title”:”Miami Valley and Greater Dayton Area News”},”navigation”:{“nav_title”:”More Communities”},”inactive”:false,”node_type”:”section”,”_website”:”dayton-daily-news”,”name”:”Community Content”,”_id”:”/community”,”ancestors”:{“default”:[“”],”SectionMap”:[“”],”TopNav”:[“”,””]},”order”:{“default”:1005,”SectionMap”:1011,”TopNav”:2012}}},”_website_section_id”:”dayton-daily-news./community”,”type”:”section”,”version”:”0.6.0″}],”primary_section”:{“path”:””,”name”:”Local News”},”tags”:[{“text”:”ddnhomepage”},{“text”:”taxon:huber heights”},{“text”:”politics_ddn”}]},”type”:”story”,”last_updated_date”:”2021-03-30T10:42:09.037Z”,”canonical_url”:”/local/three-candidates-running-for-huber-heights-seat-in-may-primary/Z7AQJ7A7MVDYNAGESCC5GBDJII/”,”promo_items”:{“basic”:{“credits”:{“affiliation”:[]},”subtitle”:”growth city”,”width”:4204,”caption”:”The Buckeye State ranked fourth in the nation in migration growth last year, and Springfield, Huber Heights and Miamisburg were among the state’s “leading growth” cities. MARSHALL GORBYSTAFF”,”type”:”image”,”url”:””,”height”:2424}},”_id”:”Z7AQJ7A7MVDYNAGESCC5GBDJII”},{“content_elements”:[{“_id”:”YAJIHGEVQVGDPJXRPLBVMQ3ML4″,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1594759697747},”type”:”text”,”content”:”A 2013 Xenia High School graduate is the newest member of the Xenia Board of Education.”},{“_id”:”HWUURCT7W5HXDJJ273RD5ITDTU”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[{“pos”:168,”comment”:”, and she plans to “}],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617055448262},”type”:”text”,”content”:”Mary Adeline Lewis has worked in the Greene County Public Defender’s office since 2019 after gradating from the University of Dayton law school, according to her resume.”},{“_id”:”TDSZHRF7U5CSRAHNCZSM2GYDEA”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617118160834},”type”:”text”,”content”:”“As someone who graduated from Xenia High School and is very proud of the education I received, I am honored to be able to be involved in this capacity. As a public defender in this county, I see a lot of people who have not finished or did not complete their high school degree. I would like to bring more focus on creative ways to allow students to not only finish their high school degree but also seek out job and professional training,” Lewis said.”},{“_id”:”N3XDDMR6UBEOTCPWSFB6CTEXIY”,”additional_properties”:{“comments”:[],”_id”:”YPVXBV67RZAK5A36WVWFMTGLDM”},”type”:”interstitial_link”,”content”:”Xenia school board member resigns, creates vacancy”,”url”:””},{“_id”:”YXJACGBGURHOLLLFY3SDHDVGEQ”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617118160835},”type”:”text”,”content”:”Lewis said as a recent student and a local attorney, she believes she can bring a fresh perspective about what it means to experience the Xenia school system.”},{“_id”:”BFXBQS2RIFEJNJVZRMLTEZAZA4″,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617133611067},”type”:”text”,”content”:”“I experienced a very similar experience to students in the school system right now,” Lewis said.”},{“_id”:”HWUURCT7W5HXDJJ273RD5ITDTU”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[{“pos”:105,”comment”:”(he is a medical dr)”}],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617055448262},”type”:”text”,”content”:”The board discussed the appointment in executive session during a March 29 special meeting. Board member Dr. Robert Dillaplain voted no, but the rest of the board voted to appoint Lewis.”},{“_id”:”NF2NK2MYGZAXZDYCLG62HF7ABU”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617110849263},”type”:”text”,”content”:”“We are pleased to have Ms. Lewis join the board, and we believe that she brings enthusiasm and a sincere love of Xenia and our schools to the table,” said Tamara Bartley, president of the board. “As a graduate of Xenia High School who has returned to live in our community, the board was impressed by the value she places on service and the importance of our public education system, as well as her thoughtful approach to becoming a member of the board.””},{“_id”:”N2T3VND75VGABFOLKPMQYT4VFA”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617133611070},”type”:”text”,”content”:”Lewis said she had a great experience in Xenia schools and wants to empower young people in the community that empowered her. Lewis said in her current job, she works with a vulnerable population. With this school board position, she wants to address societal problems at the beginning, rather than react to them later in life.”},{“_id”:”MOGBAK6QJRGX5PXDY2DELZ7V7Y”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617110849264},”type”:”text”,”content”:”The spot was vacant because former board member Jennifer Marietta recently accepted a position as magistrate with the Greene County Juvenile Court, which posed a potential conflict of interest because she will soon be in a position to hear cases that involve Xenia families and district students. She had been on the board since 2016.”},{“_id”:”C7SHNJKCU5EEJKIKIOVC3FQ6XY”,”additional_properties”:{“comments”:[],”_id”:”ISJYVVUKNBCSNJY7UWJF54CJ2I”},”type”:”interstitial_link”,”content”:”7 Xenia school board applicants to be interviewed for vacant seat”,”url”:””},{“_id”:”SFGNCZZNGFB3PB4EOPW7JKFISQ”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617055448265},”type”:”text”,”content”:”Lewis, Rick Newsock, Faith Ann Sorice, Anna Russell, Melva “Cookie” Mann Newsom, Gail Mueller, Michael Murray, Mary Grech and Kenneth Goodrum applied for the position left vacant by Marietta, according to public records requested by the Dayton Daily News.”},{“_id”:”SP7Q4R7PFNE7XG4TKGX42F3NHY”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617110849268},”type”:”text”,”content”:”Lewis will be sworn in at the next regular meeting of the Board of Education on April 12, and will serve the remainder of the current term for this seat, which ends on Dec. 31. This seat will be one of three filled for a new term on the November ballot.”}],”display_date”:”2021-03-29T23:57:16.506Z”,”headlines”:{“basic”:”Xenia HS grad to fill open school board seat”},”first_publish_date”:”2021-03-30T00:01:32.365Z”,”taxonomy”:{“sections”:[{“path”:””,”parent”:{“default”:””},”_website”:”dayton-daily-news”,”parent_id”:””,”name”:”Local News”,”description”:””,”_id”:””,”additional_properties”:{“original”:{“parent”:{“default”:””,”BottomNav”:”/configsection/links/news-bottom-nav”,”SectionMap”:””,”TopNav”:””,”ComposerNav”:””},”site”:{“section_comments_enabled”:”Yes”,”site_description”:””,”site_title”:”Dayton News | Latest from Dayton area & Miami Valley”},”navigation”:{“nav_title”:”Local”},”inactive”:false,”node_type”:”section”,”_website”:”dayton-daily-news”,”name”:”Local News”,”_id”:””,”ancestors”:{“default”:[“”],”BottomNav”:[“”,”/configsection/links/news-bottom-nav”],”SectionMap”:[“”],”TopNav”:[“”]},”order”:{“+ add”:1013,”default”:1037,”BottomNav”:2001,”SectionMap”:1037,”TopNav”:1002}}},”_website_section_id”:”dayton-daily-news./local”,”type”:”section”,”version”:”0.6.0″},{“path”:”/community”,”parent”:{“default”:””},”_website”:”dayton-daily-news”,”parent_id”:””,”name”:”Community Content”,”description”:””,”_id”:”/community”,”additional_properties”:{“original”:{“parent”:{“default”:””,”SectionMap”:””,”TopNav”:””,”ComposerNav”:””},”site”:{“section_comments_enabled”:”Yes”,”site_description”:””,”site_title”:”Miami Valley and Greater Dayton Area News”},”navigation”:{“nav_title”:”More Communities”},”inactive”:false,”node_type”:”section”,”_website”:”dayton-daily-news”,”name”:”Community Content”,”_id”:”/community”,”ancestors”:{“default”:[“”],”SectionMap”:[“”],”TopNav”:[“”,””]},”order”:{“default”:1005,”SectionMap”:1011,”TopNav”:2012}}},”_website_section_id”:”dayton-daily-news./community”,”type”:”section”,”version”:”0.6.0″}],”primary_section”:{“path”:””,”name”:”Local News”},”tags”:[{“text”:”ddnhomepage”},{“text”:”schools”},{“text”:”xenia”},{“text”:”taxon:xenia”},{“text”:”ddn_app”}]},”type”:”story”,”last_updated_date”:”2021-03-31T01:37:05.625Z”,”canonical_url”:”/local/xenia-school-board-fills-vacant-seat/SCYC7WZVXBGKFB4LDFZ5UIZS7Q/”,”promo_items”:{“basic”:{“credits”:{“affiliation”:[]},”subtitle”:”Mary Adeline Lewis”,”width”:1000,”caption”:”Mary Adeline Lewis was appointed to the vacant Xenia Board of Education spot. CONTRIBUTED”,”type”:”image”,”url”:””,”height”:563}},”_id”:”SCYC7WZVXBGKFB4LDFZ5UIZS7Q”},{“content_elements”:[{“_id”:”3EPA2EN6RRAEZBOXCKHZEZNHEA”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617059051253},”type”:”text”,”content”:”An Endangered Missing Adult Alert issued Monday night for a 70-year-old Dayton man has been canceled.”},{“_id”:”DFXM4MY7AZDTRAFZPCFX3JCPBQ”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617062839117},”type”:”text”,”content”:”The alert was for William Krueger after Dayton police said he walked away from his Church Street home around noon but did not return. He suffers from dementia and police said they were concerned for his safety.”}],”display_date”:”2021-03-29T22:57:00Z”,”headlines”:{“basic”:”Alert canceled for missing Dayton man with dementia”},”first_publish_date”:”2021-03-29T23:05:22.363Z”,”taxonomy”:{“sections”:[{“path”:””,”parent”:{“default”:””},”_website”:”dayton-daily-news”,”parent_id”:””,”name”:”Local News”,”description”:””,”_id”:””,”additional_properties”:{“original”:{“parent”:{“default”:””,”BottomNav”:”/configsection/links/news-bottom-nav”,”SectionMap”:””,”TopNav”:””,”ComposerNav”:””},”site”:{“section_comments_enabled”:”Yes”,”site_description”:””,”site_title”:”Dayton News | Latest from Dayton area & Miami Valley”},”navigation”:{“nav_title”:”Local”},”inactive”:false,”node_type”:”section”,”_website”:”dayton-daily-news”,”name”:”Local News”,”_id”:””,”ancestors”:{“default”:[“”],”BottomNav”:[“”,”/configsection/links/news-bottom-nav”],”SectionMap”:[“”],”TopNav”:[“”]},”order”:{“+ add”:1013,”default”:1037,”BottomNav”:2001,”SectionMap”:1037,”TopNav”:1002}}},”_website_section_id”:”dayton-daily-news./local”,”type”:”section”,”version”:”0.6.0″}],”primary_section”:{“path”:””,”name”:”Local News”},”tags”:[{“text”:”Ddnhomepage”},{“text”:”ddn_app”}]},”label”:{“hide_timestamp”:{“text”:”No”,”url”:””,”display”:true}},”type”:”story”,”last_updated_date”:”2021-03-30T01:37:15.085Z”,”canonical_url”:”/local/have-you-seen-missing-dayton-man-with-dementia/2SM5IZYIDBHH3HRQEXIGFPJJBM/”,”promo_items”:{“basic”:{“credits”:{“affiliation”:[]},”subtitle”:”William Krueger”,”width”:1000,”type”:”image”,”url”:””,”height”:563}},”_id”:”2SM5IZYIDBHH3HRQEXIGFPJJBM”},{“content_elements”:[{“_id”:”3QWHRVN2DBBSXM3Y7JR56FHVMU”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1594759697747},”type”:”text”,”content”:”Ohio officially opened up eligibility Monday for the coronavirus vaccine to all residents 16 and older.”},{“_id”:”ILCBTAJULFEUJO546BXKDHRH6U”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617056000438},”type”:”text”,”content”:”Several area providers had lowered the age requirement early last week to fill appointments, but now the entire state is open for vaccinations for everyone 16 and up.”},{“_id”:”FNYXASLJOBCDND7KOZ2GK4W3C4″,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617048084126},”type”:”text”,”content”:”Now health officials are watching for evidence of how interested younger people are in getting the vaccine. The oldest Ohioans demonstrated a strong desire to get vaccinated — more than 70% of Ohioans 70 and older have received at least one vaccine shot — but young adults may not.”},{“_id”:”PFKLBIS4Q5DY3DX3NSJIAB44SE”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[{“pos”:5,”comment”:”, including the U.S. Census Experimental Household Pulse Survey,”},{“pos”:78,”comment”:”the long-eligible “},{“pos”:90,”comment”:”, who are much more at risk of serious illness from COVID”}],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617048084127},”type”:”text”,”content”:”Polls have indicated younger adults appear less likely to get vaccinated than older adults.”},{“_id”:”GIFZQNWKPJBKJMFCFYJ2VMY65U”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617053029057},”type”:”text”,”content”:”Dr. Joseph Allen, regional medical director at Premier Health, said there are two big reasons young people might not get the shot: misinformation — including a widespread myth that the coronavirus vaccine can cause infertility — and the fact that young people were not hit hard by the virus. Evidence has not found that the vaccines affect fertility.”},{“_id”:”OZIQTFULPBHMHIIPMK5NFPNB4A”,”additional_properties”:{“comments”:[],”_id”:”RZLNQPVUWNB5LPK7UQBXHNGHTQ”},”type”:”interstitial_link”,”content”:”Families coming back together after pandemic safety measures caused lengthy separations.”,”url”:””},{“_id”:”HKWLN72PG5DU7GD5THPJPM7MCQ”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617048084129},”type”:”text”,”content”:”The 20- to 29-year-old age group has had the most coronavirus infections of any age group in Ohio but made up .001% of deaths in the state from the virus, according to the Ohio Department of Health. Children are even less likely to be hospitalized or die from the virus, according to the statistics.”},{“_id”:”ZBJF4WSUGBFTZGYHODXDOHKL7A”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617053029060},”type”:”text”,”content”:”“They didn’t see those bad outcomes that our older folks saw,” Allen said. “‘Well, why would I do that if it’s not gonna affect me?’ And really the answer to that is it’s going to affect other people. Even though you may not have a bad outcome, you can certainly still get (COVID-19) and pass it on to others.””},{“_id”:”G37GKX2UJRGMZEX4WCX7O4MDBM”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617053029061},”type”:”text”,”content”:”Darrian Walls, 36, of Dayton, got his first dose of the coronavirus vaccine on Monday at Five Rivers Health Center.”},{“_id”:”SPDGXJUPERE2ZNMICFJO3SVMRI”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617053029062},”type”:”text”,”content”:”“I got the vaccine shot to protect other people around me from the coronavirus,” he said. He lives with his mother, who is 77.”},{“owner”:{“sponsored”:false,”id”:”coxohio”},”address”:{},”syndication”:{},”caption”:”Alexander Well, 25 from Dayton receives a COVID-19 vaccination Monday at Five Rivers Health Centers on Salem Ave.”,”source”:{“system”:”photo center”,”edit_url”:””,”additional_properties”:{“editor”:”photo center”}},”taxonomy”:{“associated_tasks”:[“60621514dacebf2d7907ca87″]},”type”:”image”,”version”:”0.10.3″,”url”:””,”licensable”:false,”credits”:{“affiliation”:[],”by”:[{“name”:”JIM NOELKER”,”type”:”author”,”byline”:”JIM NOELKER”}]},”subtitle”:”All Ohioans 16 and up are now eligible for the coronavirus vaccine”,”width”:2048,”_id”:”WDRFFDBEFJEY7PRWFP33TCUWXE”,”additional_properties”:{“fullSizeResizeUrl”:”/resizer/9dH_411vUF3b7-g2jtGx__riVao=/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-coxohio/public/WDRFFDBEFJEY7PRWFP33TCUWXE.jpg”,”owner”:””,”comments”:[],”proxyUrl”:”/resizer/9dH_411vUF3b7-g2jtGx__riVao=/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-coxohio/public/WDRFFDBEFJEY7PRWFP33TCUWXE.jpg”,”originalUrl”:””,”published”:true,”resizeUrl”:”/resizer/9dH_411vUF3b7-g2jtGx__riVao=/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-coxohio/public/WDRFFDBEFJEY7PRWFP33TCUWXE.jpg”,”ingestionMethod”:”manual”,”thumbnailResizeUrl”:”/resizer/pvLDNzA4CfcoP2V-0WpTlCsjzcs=/300×0/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-coxohio/public/WDRFFDBEFJEY7PRWFP33TCUWXE.jpg”,”version”:1,”originalName”:”vaccine 25.jpg”,”mime_type”:”image/jpeg”,”restricted”:false,”template_id”:623,”galleries”:[],”_id”:”LJCUNZEAFJB4RGAS5FIEOHX3IQ”},”created_date”:”2021-03-29T20:56:37Z”,”last_updated_date”:”2021-03-29T20:57:27Z”,”height”:1536,”image_type”:”photograph”},{“_id”:”UHAEDQWYX5AX3BXOZLGFDHQ2EA”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617048084137},”type”:”text”,”content”:”Alexander Well, 25, of West Carrollton said he got the vaccine Monday at Five Rivers Health Center for similar reasons as well as to protect himself. He’s more at risk if he gets coronavirus because of his asthma, he said.”},{“_id”:”SALDX47YANDRLMVXUXLFRKGLWQ”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617053029065},”type”:”text”,”content”:”Well said most of the young people in his social circle are excited to get the shot.”},{“_id”:”LIECRRRDLVHIDH725WEVN27SVM”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617053029066},”type”:”text”,”content”:”At the University of Dayton Arena Monday afternoon, a steady stream of young people, many sporting collegiate and high school apparel or dawning face masks decorated with tiny superheroes, were among more than 2,000 people receiving a vaccine from Premier Health.”},{“_id”:”WNZVCLEHSBCVDENJICECUIFOBM”,”additional_properties”:{“comments”:[],”_id”:”7F5B63SLO5E5NFAGXMCAKRUYYQ”},”type”:”interstitial_link”,”content”:”Dayton Daily News survey: Why people are getting the vaccine (or not)”,”url”:””},{“_id”:”4X7VJQC4YFCL3BL6KZCJXHGW2U”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617053029068},”type”:”text”,”content”:”While she got her shot, Chloe Heard, 20, closed her eyes and squeezed her 16-year-old sister Camille Heard’s hand. The sisters from Liberty Twp. in Butler County said their mom encouraged them to get the vaccine but it ultimately was their decision.”},{“owner”:{“sponsored”:false,”id”:”coxohio”},”address”:{},”syndication”:{},”caption”:”While she got her shot, Chloe Heard, 20, closed her eyes and squeezed her 16-year-old sister Camille Heard’s hand.”,”source”:{“system”:”photo center”,”edit_url”:””,”additional_properties”:{“editor”:”photo center”}},”taxonomy”:{“associated_tasks”:[]},”type”:”image”,”version”:”0.10.3″,”url”:””,”licensable”:false,”credits”:{“affiliation”:[],”by”:[{“image”:{“version”:”0.5.8″,”url”:””},”socialLinks”:[{“site”:”email”,”deprecated”:true,”deprecation_msg”:”Please use social_links.”,”url”:””}],”social_links”:[{“site”:”email”,”url”:””}],”name”:”Jordan Laird”,”description”:”Jordan Laird is a Dayton Daily News All Media Journalist. She joined the newspaper in August 2020.”,”_id”:”jlaird”,”additional_properties”:{“original”:{“lastName”:”Laird”,”image”:””,”role”:”All Media Journalist”,”education”:[],”longBio”:”Jordan Laird is an investigative reporter for the Dayton Daily News. She started with the DDN in August of 2020. Before coming to Dayton, she was a staff writer for the Ashland Times-Gazette in Ashland, Ohio. A lifelong Ohio resident, Jordan was born in Dayton. “,”native_app_rendering”:false,”fuzzy_match”:false,”affiliations”:””,”bio”:”Jordan Laird is a Dayton Daily News All Media Journalist. She joined the newspaper in August 2020.”,”type”:”author”,”firstName”:”Jordan”,”books”:[],”podcasts”:[],”contributor”:false,”awards”:[],”_id”:”jlaird”,”bio_page”:”/staff/jlaird/”,”last_updated_date”:”2020-11-19T15:53:53.175Z”,”byline”:”Jordan Laird”,”email”:””,”slug”:””,”status”:true}},”type”:”author”,”version”:”0.5.8″,”url”:”/staff/jlaird/”,”slug”:””}]},”subtitle”:”young people vaccine UD arena 2″,”width”:3520,”_id”:”NCPH3O4FZNEAVJY4YT4KJP4NME”,”additional_properties”:{“fullSizeResizeUrl”:”/resizer/yXjEFF_pY554l0h7UIA4QG0ZFLA=/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-coxohio/public/NCPH3O4FZNEAVJY4YT4KJP4NME.JPG”,”owner”:””,”comments”:[],”proxyUrl”:”/resizer/yXjEFF_pY554l0h7UIA4QG0ZFLA=/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-coxohio/public/NCPH3O4FZNEAVJY4YT4KJP4NME.JPG”,”originalUrl”:””,”published”:true,”resizeUrl”:”/resizer/yXjEFF_pY554l0h7UIA4QG0ZFLA=/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-coxohio/public/NCPH3O4FZNEAVJY4YT4KJP4NME.JPG”,”ingestionMethod”:”manual”,”thumbnailResizeUrl”:”/resizer/hx5s80uzGzaTZLn5iqxrymEvdKs=/300×0/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-coxohio/public/NCPH3O4FZNEAVJY4YT4KJP4NME.JPG”,”version”:0,”originalName”:”IMG_0299.JPG”,”mime_type”:”image/jpeg”,”restricted”:false,”template_id”:623,”galleries”:[],”_id”:”SRXJKK4YZZBIPPR2L5T3TKTG5U”},”created_date”:”2021-03-29T22:03:24Z”,”last_updated_date”:”2021-03-29T22:03:24Z”,”height”:1980,”image_type”:”photograph”},{“_id”:”WVNBIXS2BBAYBPLUEKCYRPRDK4″,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617053029069},”type”:”text”,”content”:”They said they are hearing mixed opinions on the vaccine from peers at their schools, Capitol University and Lakota East High School. Camille Heard encouraged others to trust science and get the vaccine to help everybody.”},{“_id”:”BKY7BKLUJZBVFMB6QIBA3WIRCQ”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617053029070},”type”:”text”,”content”:”They said more young people will come around as they see others getting it.”},{“_id”:”FIYG5ND2S5ASXF7U26I57JP2KY”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617053029071},”type”:”text”,”content”:”“I think that if my friends see that I got (the vaccine) and I didn’t turn into an alien and walk away with five extra legs, (they will see) that this is okay,” Chloe Heard said.”},{“_id”:”YNU7R7SEO5GXTBTCN4HWY42XNY”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617053029072},”type”:”text”,”content”:”Allen encouraged people on the fence about getting the shot to get their information from trustworthy sources such as public health officials and medical professionals. He said those who have been vaccinated will still need to follow precautions until more people are vaccinated.”},{“_id”:”ZFG6CBLXZNFTTKOEJYWQQ2FOGE”,”additional_properties”:{“comments”:[],”_id”:”BIQV7KCWAFCTXOBX7P5RGO5AQI”},”type”:”interstitial_link”,”content”:”Herd immunity is key to getting back to normal. But will it happen?”,”url”:””}],”display_date”:”2021-03-29T21:59:43.152Z”,”headlines”:{“basic”:”Teens now receiving coronavirus vaccines”},”first_publish_date”:”2021-03-29T21:59:44.016Z”,”taxonomy”:{“sections”:[{“path”:”/news”,”parent”:{“default”:””},”_website”:”journal-news”,”parent_id”:””,”name”:”News”,”description”:””,”_id”:”/news”,”additional_properties”:{“original”:{“parent”:{“default”:””,”SectionMap”:””,”TopNav”:””,”ComposerNav”:””},”site”:{“section_comments_enabled”:”Yes”,”site_description”:””,”site_title”:”Journal-News | Local News for Hamilton, Middletown”},”navigation”:{“nav_title”:”News”},”inactive”:false,”node_type”:”section”,”_website”:”journal-news”,”name”:”News”,”_id”:”/news”,”ancestors”:{“default”:[“”],”SectionMap”:[“”],”TopNav”:[“”]},”order”:{“SectionMap”:1012}}},”_website_section_id”:”journal-news./news”,”type”:”section”,”version”:”0.6.0″},{“path”:”/ohio”,”parent”:{“default”:””},”_website”:”springfield-news-sun”,”parent_id”:””,”name”:”Ohio News”,”description”:””,”_id”:”/ohio”,”additional_properties”:{“original”:{“parent”:{“default”:””,”SectionMap”:””,”TopNav”:”/news”,”ComposerNav”:””},”site”:{“section_comments_enabled”:”Yes”,”site_description”:””,”site_title”:”Ohio News | Latest Regional & State of Ohio”},”navigation”:{“nav_title”:”Ohio News”},”inactive”:false,”node_type”:”section”,”_website”:”springfield-news-sun”,”name”:”Ohio News”,”_id”:”/ohio”,”ancestors”:{“default”:[“”],”SectionMap”:[“”],”TopNav”:[“”,”/news”]},”order”:{“default”:1006,”SectionMap”:1007,”TopNav”:2005}}},”_website_section_id”:”springfield-news-sun./ohio”,”type”:”section”,”version”:”0.6.0″},{“path”:””,”parent”:{“default”:””},”_website”:”dayton-daily-news”,”parent_id”:””,”name”:”Local News”,”description”:””,”_id”:””,”additional_properties”:{“original”:{“parent”:{“default”:””,”BottomNav”:”/configsection/links/news-bottom-nav”,”SectionMap”:””,”TopNav”:””,”ComposerNav”:””},”site”:{“section_comments_enabled”:”Yes”,”site_description”:””,”site_title”:”Dayton News | Latest from Dayton area & Miami Valley”},”navigation”:{“nav_title”:”Local”},”inactive”:false,”node_type”:”section”,”_website”:”dayton-daily-news”,”name”:”Local News”,”_id”:””,”ancestors”:{“default”:[“”],”BottomNav”:[“”,”/configsection/links/news-bottom-nav”],”SectionMap”:[“”],”TopNav”:[“”]},”order”:{“+ add”:1013,”default”:1037,”BottomNav”:2001,”SectionMap”:1037,”TopNav”:1002}}},”_website_section_id”:”dayton-daily-news./local”,”type”:”section”,”version”:”0.6.0″}],”primary_section”:{“path”:””,”name”:”Local News”},”tags”:[{“text”:”ddnhomepage”},{“text”:”coronavirus”},{“text”:”corona_vaccine”},{“text”:”corona”},{“text”:”coronainfo”},{“text”:”hjnhomepage”},{“text”:”hjnhptop”},{“text”:”jn_app”},{“text”:”ddn_app”}]},”type”:”story”,”last_updated_date”:”2021-03-29T22:37:00.729Z”,”canonical_url”:”/local/teens-now-receiving-coronavirus-vaccines/I4CHMOX42BE6RG5TBH4GVS5CQ4/”,”promo_items”:{“basic”:{“promo_image”:{“url”:””},”credits”:{},”headlines”:{“basic”:”Will young people get the vaccine now that they’re eligible?”},”type”:”video”,”promo_items”:{“basic”:{“width”:1920,”caption”:”All Ohioans 16 years and older are eligible for the coronavirus vaccine as of Monday.”,”type”:”image”,”url”:””,”height”:1080}}}},”_id”:”I4CHMOX42BE6RG5TBH4GVS5CQ4″},{“content_elements”:[{“_id”:”T6KXQPASLVC6DFCNW5XH3BT5P4″,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1594654470674},”type”:”text”,”content”:”A man was taken to Miami Valley Hospital South Monday afternoon following a two-vehicle crash near Waynesville.”},{“_id”:”T42LRU2RLNAIRLICX443YLT4HI”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617054506858},”type”:”text”,”content”:”The crash happened at 3:20 p.m. on U.S. 42 just north of North Waynesville Road, according to the Ohio State Highway Patrol.”},{“_id”:”G6GVKLQENVE6BDCEKQMZFVZPOU”,”additional_properties”:{“comments”:[],”_id”:”4IFVVT6NEZF3RKWGRY3JVC6UTU”},”type”:”interstitial_link”,”content”:”Herd immunity is key to getting back to normal. But will it happen?”,”url”:””},{“_id”:”MJISOJIED5BGPHYM3BAWWZMWVM”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617054506860},”type”:”text”,”content”:”The crash victim suffered a large puncture wound to the neck area, according to initial reports.”},{“_id”:”WDWVIDBI5ZCCROOF4I4BJYB2CA”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617054506861},”type”:”text”,”content”:”The crash remains under investigation.”}],”display_date”:”2021-03-29T21:47:35.071Z”,”headlines”:{“basic”:”Man taken to hospital after 2-vehicle crash near Waynesville”},”first_publish_date”:”2021-03-29T21:51:52.124Z”,”taxonomy”:{“sections”:[{“path”:””,”parent”:{“default”:””},”_website”:”dayton-daily-news”,”parent_id”:””,”name”:”Local News”,”description”:””,”_id”:””,”additional_properties”:{“original”:{“parent”:{“default”:””,”BottomNav”:”/configsection/links/news-bottom-nav”,”SectionMap”:””,”TopNav”:””,”ComposerNav”:””},”site”:{“section_comments_enabled”:”Yes”,”site_description”:””,”site_title”:”Dayton News | Latest from Dayton area & Miami Valley”},”navigation”:{“nav_title”:”Local”},”inactive”:false,”node_type”:”section”,”_website”:”dayton-daily-news”,”name”:”Local News”,”_id”:””,”ancestors”:{“default”:[“”],”BottomNav”:[“”,”/configsection/links/news-bottom-nav”],”SectionMap”:[“”],”TopNav”:[“”]},”order”:{“+ add”:1013,”default”:1037,”BottomNav”:2001,”SectionMap”:1037,”TopNav”:1002}}},”_website_section_id”:”dayton-daily-news./local”,”type”:”section”,”version”:”0.6.0″}],”primary_section”:{“path”:””,”name”:”Local News”},”tags”:[{“text”:”Ddnhomepage”}]},”label”:{“hide_timestamp”:{“text”:”No”,”url”:””,”display”:true}},”type”:”story”,”last_updated_date”:”2021-03-29T21:52:52.821Z”,”canonical_url”:”/local/1-person-taken-to-hospital-after-2-vehicle-crash-near-waynesville/VVZ6DY2C55D7DFTLEU5U4FPLYY/”,”promo_items”:{“basic”:{“credits”:{},”subtitle”:”OSP”,”width”:710,”type”:”image”,”url”:””,”height”:398}},”_id”:”VVZ6DY2C55D7DFTLEU5U4FPLYY”},{“content_elements”:[{“_id”:”7RIJ4TKJP5GYBCKH7SSFUD6JTI”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617051846245},”type”:”text”,”content”:”Montgomery County Treasurer Russ Joseph is leaving the position early to start a new job outside of local government, according to a press release issued Monday afternoon.”},{“_id”:”NADV7J3GSNCWTH2OKEBYTB6QN4″,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617051846246},”type”:”text”,”content”:”Republican John McManus defeated Joseph, a Democrat, in November’s general election. McManus is not scheduled to begin his term until Sept. 6. The race could not be called until nearly two weeks after the election, when the final margin of 50.38% to 49.62% was confirmed.”},{“_id”:”WU5U5L6XAJGJPPFKV7PKQBNR2E”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617051846247},”type”:”text”,”content”:”Joseph’s last day as treasurer will be April 11.”},{“_id”:”JMVMPV4L55EGXPV5QFZVD6YF2E”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617051846248},”type”:”text”,”content”:”He led the Montgomery County Treasurer’s Office for the last two years.”},{“_id”:”5BYLQMPGZRFLPD6YMU3GLUK6AY”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617051846250},”type”:”text”,”content”:”“I am so proud of all the things my staff and I have accomplished during my tenure to help improve customer service and provide additional revenue for our local communities and service agencies,” Joseph said.”},{“_id”:”7R7XORRHHZAWLONRHWEUTCTFHQ”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[{“pos”:0,”comment”:”Treasurer Joseph’s tenure was marked by many of Montgomery County’s most challenging events in recent history. “}],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617051846251},”type”:”text”,”content”:”In his first year as treasurer, a series of tornadoes struck Montgomery County on Memorial Day tornadoes days before property tax bills were going in the mail. Joseph worked with Auditor Karl Keith and Prosecutor Mat Heck to use a little-known state law to defer taxes for one year for any properties that were damaged in the tornadoes.”},{“_id”:”G2TWUUKUFREOPBW3OLHSASCNVY”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[{“pos”:0,”comment”:”In 2020, the coronavirus pandemic changed nearly every aspect of daily life, and the Treasurer’s Office was no exception. In the early days of the pandemic, Joseph instituted new procedures to protect both taxpayers and his employees. The new procedures allowed cashier lines to remain open much of the year to assist those in our community who are unbanked and only able to pay their bills by cash. He also accelerated plans to introduce a new online payment system that slashed customer fees to encourage online payments. The new system implementation and a public awareness campaign doubled the number of online payments made in the second-half collection that summer.”}],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617051846257},”type”:”text”,”content”:””},{“_id”:”PV5RC5WVKRG7RFOSCA65QNLYIM”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[{“pos”:0,”comment”:”Thanks in large part to Treasurer Joseph’s commitment to making these improvements, the Treasurer’s office surpassed the previous year’s collection record by bringing in over 100% of expected collections when also including delinquent collections.”}],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617051846259},”type”:”text”,”content”:””},{“_id”:”OFUFM43YONA3JI6E5L7GRL7RQ4″,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[{“pos”:0,”comment”:”Even during these unprecedented times of low interest rates and an economy weighed down by a pandemic, Treasurer Joseph grew the county’s investment portfolio by over 20% from $518 million to $625 million during his tenure as Treasurer. These strong returns will ensure that the county is in a strong financial position moving forward.”}],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617051846260},”type”:”text”,”content”:””},{“_id”:”5HSO3BRKGRFAZBQVQZROXKK2DY”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617051846261},”type”:”text”,”content”:”The Montgomery County Commission will appoint an interim treasurer beginning April 12. “},{“_id”:”ECCS7Y3XMZCLNLZSOHNFEBEE4Y”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[]},”type”:”text”,”content”:”Joseph is asking the Montgomery County Democratic Party to appoint his chief deputy, Paul Bradley, to serve out the current term that expires on Sept. 6.”},{“_id”:”Q7ZODOI7XBECXMZWRCEWNV6654″,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617051846262},”type”:”text”,”content”:”“Paul has shown tremendous leadership in his time in the Treasurer’s Office, as well as through his previous experience serving as Sen. Sherrod Brown’s Regional Liaison in the greater Dayton region,” Joseph said. “I have full confidence in Paul and the leadership team to fulfill the remainder of the term in office.””},{“_id”:”V7FWGDCC7VEXBNON3THKXIPKAU”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[{“pos”:0,”comment”:”Treasurer Joseph has dedicated 20 years of his life to serving the Dayton community, both as an elected official and civil servant.”}],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617051846263},”type”:”text”,”content”:””},{“_id”:”YYQ75SKCKBFTLLEWXH5DA4DPKU”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[]},”type”:”text”,”content”:”McManus takes office later than most office holders because of a state law that staggers county officials terms. McManus is a former Dayton school board member.”},{“_id”:”72LXDCHXHFCOZLWVHS7XJQTN4Y”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[]},”type”:”text”,”content”:”Joseph earlier had been appointed Montgomery County Clerk of Courts but lost when the seat was up in 2018.”},{“_id”:”VGBTDVQNWFFELEMRYZQ5PE5DLM”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[]},”type”:”text”,”content”:”
“}],”display_date”:”2021-03-29T21:19:55.117Z”,”headlines”:{“basic”:”Montgomery County treasurer stepping down early”},”first_publish_date”:”2021-03-29T21:19:57.780Z”,”taxonomy”:{“sections”:[{“path”:””,”parent”:{“default”:””},”_website”:”dayton-daily-news”,”parent_id”:””,”name”:”Local News”,”description”:””,”_id”:””,”additional_properties”:{“original”:{“parent”:{“default”:””,”BottomNav”:”/configsection/links/news-bottom-nav”,”SectionMap”:””,”TopNav”:””,”ComposerNav”:””},”site”:{“section_comments_enabled”:”Yes”,”site_description”:””,”site_title”:”Dayton News | Latest from Dayton area & Miami Valley”},”navigation”:{“nav_title”:”Local”},”inactive”:false,”node_type”:”section”,”_website”:”dayton-daily-news”,”name”:”Local News”,”_id”:””,”ancestors”:{“default”:[“”],”BottomNav”:[“”,”/configsection/links/news-bottom-nav”],”SectionMap”:[“”],”TopNav”:[“”]},”order”:{“+ add”:1013,”default”:1037,”BottomNav”:2001,”SectionMap”:1037,”TopNav”:1002}}},”_website_section_id”:”dayton-daily-news./local”,”type”:”section”,”version”:”0.6.0″},{“path”:”/community”,”parent”:{“default”:””},”_website”:”dayton-daily-news”,”parent_id”:””,”name”:”Community Content”,”description”:””,”_id”:”/community”,”additional_properties”:{“original”:{“parent”:{“default”:””,”SectionMap”:””,”TopNav”:””,”ComposerNav”:””},”site”:{“section_comments_enabled”:”Yes”,”site_description”:””,”site_title”:”Miami Valley and Greater Dayton Area News”},”navigation”:{“nav_title”:”More Communities”},”inactive”:false,”node_type”:”section”,”_website”:”dayton-daily-news”,”name”:”Community Content”,”_id”:”/community”,”ancestors”:{“default”:[“”],”SectionMap”:[“”],”TopNav”:[“”,””]},”order”:{“default”:1005,”SectionMap”:1011,”TopNav”:2012}}},”_website_section_id”:”dayton-daily-news./community”,”type”:”section”,”version”:”0.6.0″}],”primary_section”:{“path”:””,”name”:”Local News”},”tags”:[{“text”:”ddnhomepage”},{“text”:”dayton”}]},”type”:”story”,”last_updated_date”:”2021-03-29T21:19:58.007Z”,”canonical_url”:”/local/montgomery-county-treasurer-stepping-down-early/ZVOFWHPH3RGCHI75Q3XEG272HM/”,”promo_items”:{“basic”:{“credits”:{},”subtitle”:”Office holder ousted in November interested in treasurer’s job”,”width”:2048,”caption”:”Russ Joseph lost in November in a race for Montgomery County treasurer. SUBMITTED”,”type”:”image”,”url”:””,”height”:1356}},”_id”:”ZVOFWHPH3RGCHI75Q3XEG272HM”},{“content_elements”:[{“_id”:”DQ2Z5SIQCZHLPEJBFI27CITW5Q”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617046246607},”type”:”text”,”content”:”Trotwood city leaders are asking residents to vote in favor of Issue 10, an operations renewal tax levy for various city services in May.”},{“_id”:”SDOLGP6VOZBADE76CAAJJTXHVQ”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617046246608},”type”:”text”,”content”:”The levy is a 5-year, 5.75-mill property tax renewal that’ll cost homeowners of a $100,000 home $175.35 each year. The levy is estimated to generate over $1.2 million in funds for the city. The funds generated will cover areas of economic development efforts, landscaping, emergency services and other city-funded programs.”},{“_id”:”ERWHI6P4HFE6JGXPWAO6M3ZXEI”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617046246609},”type”:”text”,”content”:”“We are still recovering from the 2019 Memorial Day tornadoes and a declining revenue environment caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore it would be difficult to maintain quality municipal services without the funds generated from this renewal levy. We have great momentum moving into fiscal year 2021 and we want to maintain our essential services for our community,” said City Manager Quincy Pope.”},{“_id”:”4OTSKSDJWFCVLDLGB3LAHTBABU”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617046246610},”type”:”text”,”content”:”The tax levy was first introduced in 2001 and aims to attract new businesses and support existing ones as well as fund city landscaping and cemetery upkeep. Money generated from the levy will fund school and community programs in addition to funding the city’s emergency response force.”},{“_id”:”J5WJIJMFXZGKFDXJLMUBVNX4LE”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617046246611},”type”:”text”,”content”:”“It will allow the city to continue moving forward with road surfacing and repair plans of 411 lane-miles of roadways,” said Pope. “It provides funding for police services from community, patrol, criminal investigation, traffic enforcement to creating strategies to combat crime, provides funding to maintain all city of Trotwood buildings, equipment and infrastructure.””},{“_id”:”4OTSKSDJWFCVLDLGB3LAHTBABU”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617046246612},”type”:”text”,”content”:”
“}],”display_date”:”2021-03-29T20:56:47.534Z”,”headlines”:{“basic”:”Trotwood seeks tax renewal for city services”},”first_publish_date”:”2021-03-29T20:56:32.651Z”,”taxonomy”:{“sections”:[{“path”:””,”parent”:{“default”:””},”_website”:”dayton-daily-news”,”parent_id”:””,”name”:”Local News”,”description”:””,”_id”:””,”additional_properties”:{“original”:{“parent”:{“default”:””,”BottomNav”:”/configsection/links/news-bottom-nav”,”SectionMap”:””,”TopNav”:””,”ComposerNav”:””},”site”:{“section_comments_enabled”:”Yes”,”site_description”:””,”site_title”:”Dayton News | Latest from Dayton area & Miami Valley”},”navigation”:{“nav_title”:”Local”},”inactive”:false,”node_type”:”section”,”_website”:”dayton-daily-news”,”name”:”Local News”,”_id”:””,”ancestors”:{“default”:[“”],”BottomNav”:[“”,”/configsection/links/news-bottom-nav”],”SectionMap”:[“”],”TopNav”:[“”]},”order”:{“+ add”:1013,”default”:1037,”BottomNav”:2001,”SectionMap”:1037,”TopNav”:1002}}},”_website_section_id”:”dayton-daily-news./local”,”type”:”section”,”version”:”0.6.0″},{“path”:”/community”,”parent”:{“default”:””},”_website”:”dayton-daily-news”,”parent_id”:””,”name”:”Community Content”,”description”:””,”_id”:”/community”,”additional_properties”:{“original”:{“parent”:{“default”:””,”SectionMap”:””,”TopNav”:””,”ComposerNav”:””},”site”:{“section_comments_enabled”:”Yes”,”site_description”:””,”site_title”:”Miami Valley and Greater Dayton Area News”},”navigation”:{“nav_title”:”More Communities”},”inactive”:false,”node_type”:”section”,”_website”:”dayton-daily-news”,”name”:”Community Content”,”_id”:”/community”,”ancestors”:{“default”:[“”],”SectionMap”:[“”],”TopNav”:[“”,””]},”order”:{“default”:1005,”SectionMap”:1011,”TopNav”:2012}}},”_website_section_id”:”dayton-daily-news./community”,”type”:”section”,”version”:”0.6.0″}],”primary_section”:{“path”:””,”name”:”Local News”},”tags”:[{“text”:”ddnhomepage”}]},”type”:”story”,”last_updated_date”:”2021-03-29T20:56:32.835Z”,”canonical_url”:”/local/trotwood-seeks-tax-renewal-for-city-services/2TJROU6UEZDANEPT4ND7RJ2GMI/”,”promo_items”:{“basic”:{“credits”:{},”subtitle”:”3 issues on May ballot could raise taxes in these Butler County communities”,”width”:2000,”caption”:”Taxpayers in three western Butler County communities will decide May 8 on a set of pocketbook issues involving infrastructure, public safety and a recreation trail. STAFF FILE PHOTO”,”type”:”image”,”url”:””,”height”:734}},”_id”:”2TJROU6UEZDANEPT4ND7RJ2GMI”},{“content_elements”:[{“_id”:”Y2ZUNAMDT5A3BKEWTTZGUXA7SE”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1594910670020},”type”:”text”,”content”:”U.S. Rep. Mike Turner, R-Dayton, released a three-minute video Monday to raise his profile outside the Dayton region as he considers a run for U.S. Senate.”},{“_id”:”YKC6GB4LIBB3ZECXPVDDPXTSVM”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617033482865},”type”:”text”,”content”:”“We’re getting significant pressure to enter this race. We’re taking a look at it. We are having conversations with people across the state. The video we produced because our supporters were asking for something that they could provide for family and friends to remind them of my record and of our hard work for Ohio,” Turner said on Monday.”},{“_id”:”MCXEORKYW5CKHFVMR4EUKZ4MFQ”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617033482866},”type”:”text”,”content”:”The general election is in November 2022.”},{“_id”:”FUYDCAMNH5GG5EASW7PU7N6W6A”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617033482867},”type”:”text”,”content”:”Turner would have to fight his way through a crowded GOP primary field that already includes former Ohio Republican Party chair Jane Timken and former state treasurer Josh Mandel.”},{“_id”:”QUA55N56ZVGZ5GHLILGBAFGI3U”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617033482868},”type”:”text”,”content”:”Other Republicans considering getting into the race include businessmen Mike Gibbons and Bernie Moreno, author J.D. Vance and U.S. Rep. Steve Stivers, R-Columbus.”},{“_id”:”S7LWEOGURFE2ZEBP7EUO5KXPLQ”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617033482869},”type”:”text”,”content”:”“My record of accomplishment is distinguishable from everyone who is taking a look at the race,” Turner said.”},{“_id”:”RO4OI3MBERFFNGN3KGRYWCMGNI”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617033482870},”type”:”text”,”content”:”His plan for telling voters about that record?”},{“_id”:”PNWTTVXDO5GBTEVXCNQIFAQDYI”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617033482871},”type”:”text”,”content”:”“We’ve begun the kick off today with our video, which is telling of my conservative, accomplished leadership,” Turner said. “And then I’ll be going across the state, talking to people in Ohio, looking for how I can best serve and what they see as important for this race. This is a critical time for our country, a critical time for Ohio.””},{“_id”:”BI2ZUUG4SJCYFICYFLVI2VHLOM”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617033482872},”type”:”text”,”content”:”U.S. Sen. Rob Portman, R-Cincinnati, announced in January that he would not seek a third term, setting off a cascade of interest from politicos who want to replace him.”},{“_id”:”5HOTIABV5VGUXL5YLPUQX62EUM”,”additional_properties”:{“comments”:[],”_id”:”HHNO2S7HTZGMNJ5GDBD5ONI2XM”},”type”:”interstitial_link”,”content”:””It’s a toxic environment,” says U.S. Sen. Rob Portman”,”url”:””},{“_id”:”RWJXGOCLOZGRPOFDJRGU2ZCQEI”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617033482874},”type”:”text”,”content”:”Turner, who served two terms as Dayton mayor and has been in Congress since 2003, said he is assembling a campaign organization, including fundraising.”},{“_id”:”ILDQ34SWYVA6JD77GQKK3G4V2U”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[{“pos”:0,”comment”:”He sidestepped a question about whether he would actively seek an endorsement from former President Donald Trump.”}],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617033482875},”type”:”text”,”content”:””},{“_id”:”63DVDG7KBBAHHD73EJSGVLH4AY”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[{“pos”:0,”comment”:”“We’re going to be seeking endorsements from a number of people, which of course will leaders across the state and of course President Trump’s endorsement — if he makes one in this race — will be part of the discussion, but this is more about Ohio than it is about who endorses,” Turner said.”}],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617033482876},”type”:”text”,”content”:””},{“_id”:”WUQYOERTINHB3ESTPSF6ZOLMAE”,”additional_properties”:{“comments”:[],”_id”:”LDOVRM7RB5GATLBXINYRFN2SRE”},”type”:”interstitial_link”,”content”:”Turner seeks 10th term in Congress, points to expansions at Wright-Patt AFB”,”url”:””},{“_id”:”XNXRMPLYNFHUHD7TLUYYHSCVH4″,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[{“pos”:0,”comment”:”Trump won Ohio by 8 percentage points in 2016 and 2020.”}],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617033482878},”type”:”text”,”content”:””},{“_id”:”26UXOJ7VCNFX7H4AFBMLYMM7EQ”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[{“pos”:0,”comment”:”POLITICO reported that four contenders actively seeking Trump’s endorsement in the Ohio race went through a “Hunger Games” scene at Mar-a-Lago in which the former president pitted them against one another.”}],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617033482879},”type”:”text”,”content”:””},{“_id”:”DIWXQ2K53BDHNH2RKOYRH22LVQ”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[{“pos”:0,”comment”:”Turner was not among them but in his campaign video, Turner includes a clip of Trump praising him. And Turner says he has fought for jobs, national security “and, yes, America First.””}],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617033482880},”type”:”text”,”content”:””},{“_id”:”6JZ4SRGMCVBDFLQBFB5VBLJZ7U”,”additional_properties”:{“comments”:[],”_id”:”XJTYD7QM2BGWFI5O5VBRLXEBD4″},”type”:”divider”},{“_id”:”EB7HY7AY3NBCFL7D2T5FUCJFGI”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617033482882},”type”:”text”,”content”:”Mike Turner”},{“_id”:”KNVC73JBAVA2DKSKTG35IB6JDA”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617033482883},”type”:”text”,”content”:”Party: Republican”},{“_id”:”B2KHDEUK2ZARHLSHE7RJYPRSZM”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617033482884},”type”:”text”,”content”:”Age: 61″},{“_id”:”T2T62WH6TZAYXG4LYE7T2XIRN4″,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617033482885},”type”:”text”,”content”:”Family: Twice divorced, two adult daughters.”},{“_id”:”4K4G6LETYRHRNPEF2Y36X23ZW4″,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617033482886},”type”:”text”,”content”:”Education: Belmont High School; bachelor’s degree, Ohio Northern University; juris doctor, Case Western Reserve University; MBA, University of Dayton.”},{“_id”:”D3HRNX4LIBHDJJHXMSIUHKJMLE”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617033482887},”type”:”text”,”content”:”Political Experience: Dayton mayor, 1994-2001; U.S. House of Representatives, 2003-current.”},{“_id”:”EVOO4LRBTJHXXL4YTY3KCPCGEA”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617033482888},”type”:”text”,”content”:”
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Ohio”},”navigation”:{“nav_title”:”Politics”},”inactive”:false,”node_type”:”section”,”_website”:”springfield-news-sun”,”name”:”Politics”,”_id”:”/politics”,”ancestors”:{“default”:[“”],”SectionMap”:[“”],”TopNav”:[“”,”/news”]},”order”:{“SectionMap”:1005,”TopNav”:2004,”ComposerNav”:1006}}},”_website_section_id”:”springfield-news-sun./politics”,”type”:”section”,”version”:”0.6.0″}],”primary_section”:{“path”:””,”name”:”Local News”},”tags”:[{“text”:”ddnhomepage”},{“text”:”snshomepage”},{“text”:”snsnewsletter”},{“text”:”politics_ddn”},{“text”:”politics_jn”},{“text”:”politics_sns”},{“text”:”hjnhomepage”},{“text”:”politics_hjn”}]},”type”:”story”,”last_updated_date”:”2021-03-29T19:42:25.956Z”,”canonical_url”:”/local/us-senate-race-mike-turner-puts-out-campaign-video/EXL2FBN2TNEZJLTRCNSVCOXLKM/”,”promo_items”:{“basic”:{“credits”:{“affiliation”:[]},”subtitle”:”Turner screen shot”,”width”:2232,”caption”:”A screen shot of U.S. Rep. Mike Turner’s virtual press conference March 3. Photo courtesy of the Ohio Bankers League”,”type”:”image”,”url”:””,”height”:1434}},”_id”:”EXL2FBN2TNEZJLTRCNSVCOXLKM”},{“content_elements”:[{“_id”:”5R5KYXQJ5VHBJCOKK3IG6U4CVE”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1594759697747},”type”:”text”,”content”:”A procession of fire vehicles traveled through Xenia Monday afternoon in honor of firefighter Steve Helling.”},{“_id”:”2HMJRLIJSNGRRNDSACWPQNP7VY”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617042369622},”type”:”text”,”content”:”Helling, 41, died on March 21. He was a 13-year veteran of the Xenia Fire Division.”},{“_id”:”Z6L6BEUEUNAYXBDNSBUODVGT3M”,”additional_properties”:{“comments”:[],”_id”:”3R5GQDZB4FHNNOX6X36RHV4S4Q”},”type”:”interstitial_link”,”content”:”RELATED: Memorial services announced for veteran Xenia firefighter”,”url”:””},{“_id”:”PIO2NN55QNBALDORMHVLSI4NKM”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617042369624},”type”:”text”,”content”:”The procession was scheduled to begin around 2 p.m. at the Greene County Fairgrounds, according to the fire department. The procession was to continue east on West Ankeney Mill Road and turn right on North Detroit Street before going left on East Main Street. The procession went past the fire station and turned right on South Columbus Street and then made another right onto East Second Street, where it went past another fire station. The procession continued on West Second Street until turning right onto Valley Road and ending at Valley View Memorial.”},{“_id”:”7NI5W36GYBAZVO4DCM2VCXYQMQ”,”additional_properties”:{“comments”:[],”_id”:”KMYNRAL4E5GYXE7PWDSPCXDSWQ”},”type”:”raw_html”,”content”:”


FYI for the services today 👇

Posted by City of Xenia Fire Division on Monday, March 29, 2021

“},{“_id”:”YURDJJJ6ERC7JB2JY2LQCEVVX4″,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617042369626},”type”:”text”,”content”:”Valley Road was closed from U.S. 35 to Valley View Memorial during the services. “},{“_id”:”P72TYLUOSFCDJAGXAO446CPKRM”,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617042369628},”type”:”text”,”content”:”In addition to the Xenia Fire Division, Helling also served with fire departments in Xenia Twp., Englewood, Miami Twp., Spring Valley and Trotwood; and Central State EMS and West Alexandria EMS.”},{“_id”:”BVEIQJSP5RBQFEKGMOBWQJL5N4″,”additional_properties”:{“inline_comments”:[],”comments”:[],”_id”:1617042369629},”type”:”text”,”content”:”He is survived by his wife, four children and great Dane, Duke.”}],”display_date”:”2021-03-29T18:44:00Z”,”headlines”:{“basic”:”Procession of fire vehicles honors late Xenia firefighter”},”first_publish_date”:”2021-03-29T16:44:12.969Z”,”taxonomy”:{“sections”:[{“path”:””,”parent”:{“default”:””},”_website”:”dayton-daily-news”,”parent_id”:””,”name”:”Local News”,”description”:””,”_id”:””,”additional_properties”:{“original”:{“parent”:{“default”:””,”BottomNav”:”/configsection/links/news-bottom-nav”,”SectionMap”:””,”TopNav”:””,”ComposerNav”:””},”site”:{“section_comments_enabled”:”Yes”,”site_description”:””,”site_title”:”Dayton News | Latest from Dayton area & Miami Valley”},”navigation”:{“nav_title”:”Local”},”inactive”:false,”node_type”:”section”,”_website”:”dayton-daily-news”,”name”:”Local News”,”_id”:””,”ancestors”:{“default”:[“”],”BottomNav”:[“”,”/configsection/links/news-bottom-nav”],”SectionMap”:[“”],”TopNav”:[“”]},”order”:{“+ add”:1013,”default”:1037,”BottomNav”:2001,”SectionMap”:1037,”TopNav”:1002}}},”_website_section_id”:”dayton-daily-news./local”,”type”:”section”,”version”:”0.6.0″},{“path”:”/community”,”parent”:{“default”:””},”_website”:”dayton-daily-news”,”parent_id”:””,”name”:”Community Content”,”description”:””,”_id”:”/community”,”additional_properties”:{“original”:{“parent”:{“default”:””,”SectionMap”:””,”TopNav”:””,”ComposerNav”:””},”site”:{“section_comments_enabled”:”Yes”,”site_description”:””,”site_title”:”Miami Valley and Greater Dayton Area News”},”navigation”:{“nav_title”:”More Communities”},”inactive”:false,”node_type”:”section”,”_website”:”dayton-daily-news”,”name”:”Community Content”,”_id”:”/community”,”ancestors”:{“default”:[“”],”SectionMap”:[“”],”TopNav”:[“”,””]},”order”:{“default”:1005,”SectionMap”:1011,”TopNav”:2012}}},”_website_section_id”:”dayton-daily-news./community”,”type”:”section”,”version”:”0.6.0″}],”primary_section”:{“path”:””,”name”:”Local News”},”tags”:[{“text”:”ddnhomepage”},{“text”:”xenia”}]},”type”:”story”,”last_updated_date”:”2021-03-29T21:34:17.570Z”,”canonical_url”:”/local/procession-to-take-place-today-as-xenia-firefighter-is-laid-to-rest/N3HQT3NVFJF77KZQ5KFBTUOZ44/”,”promo_items”:{“basic”:{“credits”:{“affiliation”:[],”by”:[{“name”:”Courtesy: Xenia Professional Firefighters Local 698″,”type”:”author”,”byline”:”Courtesy: Xenia Professional Firefighters Local 698″}]},”subtitle”:”Steve Helling”,”width”:1000,”caption”:”Xenia Fire Division firefighter and paramedic Steve Helling”,”type”:”image”,”url”:””,”height”:563}},”_id”:”N3HQT3NVFJF77KZQ5KFBTUOZ44″}],”additional_properties”:{“took”:22,”timed_out”:false},”count”:78389,”next”:30,”_id”:”6d30b2c0b6897eda2ea5882d5cdc4fa6641271e57faa0e35d2c417c139e38d42″},”expires”:1617208047822,”lastModified”:1617207747822}}};

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]]> 0 What Economists Don’t Know About Manufacturing Wed, 31 Mar 2021 16:17:57 +0000

Robert Solow developed the field of growth economics by demonstrating that what he termed technological and related innovation was the dominant causative factor in economic growth.1 He won the Nobel Prize in 1987 by finally identifying (only 211 years after the publication of the Wealth of Nations) the long-invisible behemoth in the classical economics parlor: a demonstrated theory of economic growth.

But there was a problem. Solow found that economic growth was “exogenous” to the approaches of his still-dominant school of neoclassical economics. The variables behind innovation were simply too complex to fit within 20th-century metrics-driven neoclassical theories. While mainstream economics focused on markets because they can be modeled, it was unable to model the complex of factors behind economic growth that lay outside the market system as such. The central concept of mainstream economics is dynamic equilibrium: Market signals drive meeting points between supply and demand, such that even as change is constant the net consequence remains equilibrium. Innovation-based growth, however, is a dynamic system that is not, cannot be, in equilibrium. Features like the organization of innovation systems simply did not fit with supply and demand curves. 

Of course, an economics school without a functioning theory of growth appeared entirely unacceptable to many, and a group of “New Growth Theory” economists, initially led by Paul Romer,2 worked to make growth theory “endogenous”; in other words, to somehow put it into an analytical, neoclassical box. But this has proven to be such a hard problem that many economists have sought more manageable and measurable projects like those of behavioral economics.

Its inability to grapple with innovation systems has left economics in a particularly difficult situation when it comes to analyzing the American manufacturing sector. Manufacturing, and especially the initial production of new technologies, must be seen as part of the innovation system. It is an autonomously creative stage in which a new product must evolve through prototyping, product definition, and production design from an idea into both a marketable and produce-able good. This often requires a re-examination of the underlying science behind the innovation. While the innovation leaders of other nations, including Germany, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and now China, have focused on “manufacturing-led” innovation,3 those in the United States still mostly think that R&D is the only key to innovation, and that all the rest somehow takes care of itself. 

It used to, at least relatively speaking, but over time the delinking of innovation from production has put the United States increasingly at a competitive disadvantage. Many other better-known factors play into the problems of the American economy, but the drag that comes from ignoring the innovative power of manufacturing technique has been hugely important, too. Whatever the reasons for the oversight—the biases of classical economics, the path-dependency effects of the post-World War II “pipeline” model that emphasized federally funded research universities and basic research—if we want to recoup our leadership and ensure social comity and peace, we must stop ignoring this critical connection. 

Manufacturing’s Lost Decade

The U.S. manufacturing sector experienced a devastating decade between 2000 and 2010, from which it has only partially recovered. The decline is illustrated by five measures: employment, investment, output, productivity, and trade.

Employment: Over the past 50 years manufacturing’s share of gross domestic product (GDP) shrank from 27 percent to 12 percent. For most of this period (1965-2000), manufacturing employment remained constant at about 17 million; in the decade from 2000 to 2010 it fell by almost a third, to under 12 million, recovering by 2015 to only 12.3 million.4 All manufacturing sectors saw job losses between 2000 and 2010, with sectors most prone to globalization displacement, led by textiles and furniture, suffering massive losses.5

Investment: The fixed capital investment of manufacturing (plant, equipment, information technology, and so on), actually declined 1.8 percent in the 2000s when adjusted for cost—the first time this has occurred since data collection began in 1947. It declined in 15 of 19 industrial sectors and continues at low levels.6

Output: U.S. manufacturing output grew only 0.5 percent per year between 2000 and 2007, and during the Great Recession of 2007-09 fell by a dramatic 10.3 percent. Even as GDP began to slowly grow again (in what has been the slowest economic recovery in total GDP in 60 years), manufacturing output remained flat and has only recently returned to pre-recession levels.7

Productivity: Recent analysis shows that although the productivity growth rate in manufacturing ran at 3-4 percent per year between 1989 and 2000 while the sector was absorbing the gains of the IT revolution, it fell to only 1.7 percent per year between 2007 and 2014.8 Because productivity and output are tied together, the decline and stagnation in output tracks with the decline in productivity in this period. Assuming that our metrics are appropriate for a changing economic environment, compared with 19 other leading manufacturing nations, the United States was 10th in productivity growth and 17th in net output growth.9 Though still increasing, U.S. productivity growth remains at historically low levels; so productivity increases alone cannot account for the decline in manufacturing employment. 

Trade: The decline of the U.S. manufacturing sector is made clear by its manufacturing trade deficit. In 2015 the United States ran a trade deficit of $832 billion in manufactured goods. In 2017 the total included a $110 billion deficit in advanced technology products, a deficit that has been growing since 2002.10

Trading Places: China moved from 5.7 percent of global manufacturing output in 2000 to 19.8 percent in 2011, passing the United States as the world’s largest manufacturing power. Since then, the gap has widened further. Manufacturing value-added in China totaled $2.56 trillion in 2012 compared with $1.99 trillion for the United States.11 The U.S. share of world manufacturing value-added declined from 18.1 percent in 2010 to 17.4 percent in 2012, and the decline was primarily against China’s growing share. In the first half of 2016, China’s global exports in manufactured goods totaled $935 billion, 68 percent more than the $555 billion of U.S. exports; this is striking because in 2000, U.S. manufactured exports were three times larger than Chinese exports.12

The labor profile derangement caused by this economic shift has resulted in growing social disruption.13 While most Americans once assumed we were becoming one big middle class—defined socially in the popular imagination as opposed to economically—instead a working class that has been facing declining incomes is now in clear, angry view. For example, full-year employment of men with high school but not college degrees went from 76 percent in 1990 to 68 percent in 2013.14 The share of these men who did not work at all went from 11 percent in 1990 to 18 percent in 2013. Importantly, the median income for men without high school diplomas fell by 20 percent between 1990 and 2013; for men with high school diplomas or some college, it fell by 13 percent.15 

Because men dominated the production workforce, the decline of American manufacturing in the 2000s hit them particularly hard. Overall, real household income, measured both at the median and the mean, declined between 1999 and 2014.16 Importantly, there is a growing gap between median household income—the statistical center of the middle class—and average household income, which includes the higher gains going to the upper-middle and upper classes.17 This spells middle-class decline. 

It also spells growing income inequality. As labor economist Richard Freeman put it, “inequality is now at Third World levels.”18 It can be traced to the stagnation in college graduation rates since the mid-1970s: Workforce skill requirements kept growing but educational output, as state support of higher education waned, failed to keep up.19 Those who had the education captured a wage premium, those without it, the opposite. Meanwhile, the one-third decline in better-paying manufacturing jobs in the 2000s exacerbated the inequality split as the definition of the middle class shifted over time: In other words, employment in manufacturing has proven for many to be a downward way out of the middle class. The manufacturing decline curtailed what had been a critical pathway to the middle class for working-class families. This wasn’t just a white working-class problem: African-Americans make up 10 percent of the manufacturing workforce and Hispanics 16 percent; the decline restricted a pivotal middle-class route for those sub-communities.20  

The massive trade imbalance in manufacturing hit many industrial communities especially hard.21 Those areas that faced direct impacts from Chinese imports sustained an average income loss per adult per year of $549 between 1990 and 2007. This was offset by per capita Federal adjustment assistance of only $58. Job loss to trade with China was 2.4 million between 1999 and 2011. As Nobel economist Michael Spence has found, “Globalization hurts some subgroups within some countries, including in advanced economies. . . . The result is growing disparities in income and employment across the U.S. economy, with highly educated workers enjoying more opportunities and workers with less education facing declining employment prospects and stagnant incomes.”22

The Significance of Manufacturing Employment

Employment in the manufacturing sector can be viewed as an hourglass.23 At the center, the narrow point of the hourglass, is the production moment. But manufacturing employment is not subsumed by that moment. Pouring into the production moment is a much larger employment base that includes those working in resources, those employed by a range of suppliers and component makers, and the innovation workforce—the roughly 60 percent of scientists and engineers employed by industrial firms. Flowing out of the production moment is another, larger host of jobs, in distribution systems, retail and sales, and maintenance of the product over its life cycle both within and beyond the main production company. The employment base at the top and bottom of the hourglass is far larger than the production moment itself. 

Arranged throughout the hourglass are lengthy and complex value chains of firms involved in the production of the goods—from resources to suppliers of components to innovation, production, and finally distribution, retail, and life cycle—a great array of skills and firms, much of which we count as services. But these services are tied inextricably to manufacturing; if we removed the production element, the value chains of connected companies snap. While the lower base of the hourglass, the output end, may be partially restored if a foreign good is substituted for a domestic one, the firms involved will still be disrupted. The upper part of the hourglass, the input end, with its firms and employees, doesn’t get restored by import substitution. One major study of manufacturing value-added indicates that when the full hourglass effects are considered, manufacturing may amount to a third of the economy.24

When these complex value chains are disrupted, it is hard to put them back together. That’s why, historically, once the U.S. economy loses an economic sector it tends not to come back. It also loses the potential to innovate in the sector. This is a key reason why manufacturing decline is so consequential.

Produce There, Innovate There?

Following World War II, the U.S. economy was organized around world leadership in technology.25 It developed a comparative advantage over other nations in innovation and, as a result, led nearly all the significant innovation waves for the rest of the 20th century.26 The operating assumption was that U.S. industry would innovate and translate those innovations into products. By innovating here and producing here, it realized the full spectrum of economic gains at all stages, from research and development through production at scale, and in the follow-on life cycle of the product. It worked—the United States became the world’s richest economy.

The United States since 1940, then, has been playing out Solow’s economic growth theory—that the predominant factor in economic growth is technological and related innovation—and demonstrating that it works, with its model increasingly emulated abroad. But in recent years, with the advent of a more interconnected global economy, the innovate here/produce here model has broken down. In some industrial sectors, firms can now sever R&D and design from production. Code-able information-technology-based specifications for goods that can be sent to software-controlled production equipment have enabled “distributed” manufacturing.27 

The innovate here/produce there model appears to work well for many IT and commodity products. However, the distributed model does not work for all sectors, particularly those that still require a close connection between research, design, and production—for example, capital goods, aerospace products, energy equipment, and complex pharmaceuticals. Here, the production infrastructure provides constant feedback to the R&D and design phases. Product innovation is most efficient when tied to a close understanding of and linkage to manufacturing processes. 

However, if R&D/design and production are tightly linked, these innovation stages may have to follow production offshore if it indeed goes offshore. To the extent this is happening it is disastrous. The produce there/innovate there approach brings the very foundations of U.S. innovation-based economic success into question. If this approach grows in importance, the historic U.S. comparative advantage in innovation could be jeopardized, further hindering growth and stimulating social disruption.

What Mainstream Economics Got Wrong

Understanding how manufacturing is related to the economy as a whole is critical to all related policy processes concerning the economy. Alas, our understanding is fragile. Few U.S. leaders took the developments in manufacturing described above seriously in recent decades partly because a series of well-established economic views assured us that declines in manufacturing would be more than offset by gains elsewhere in the economy.28 

Economics has held an elevated position in national policymaking—the President has a Council of Economic Advisors, not a Council of Sociological Advisors. Mainstream economists have long told us a reassuring story about economic change and the role of manufacturing in it: 

  • The nation was losing manufacturing jobs because of major productivity gains;

  • The production economy would in the natural course of economics be replaced by a services economy;

  • Low-wage, low-cost producer nations must inevitably displace higher-cost ones;

  • Don’t worry about the loss of commodity production, since the country will retain a lead in producing high-value advanced technologies; 

  • The benefits of free trade always greatly outweigh any short-term adverse effects;

  • Innovation is distinct from production, so innovation capacity remains even if production is distributed worldwide; and 

  • A governmental role in the production system would constitute a dangerous “industrial policy.” 

Alas, each of these arguments has proved incorrect.

Productivity and job loss: Political economist Suzanne Berger has noted that mainstream economists thought manufacturing was like agriculture, where relentless productivity gains allowed an ever-smaller workforce to achieve ever-greater output. She found that the agriculture analogy was simply incorrect.29 This finding means that it is necessary to look at the overall decline in the sector itself for reasons why manufacturing lost nearly one-third of its workforce in a decade. The U.S. productivity growth rate is now at historic lows, again assuming that we are counting the right things; low productivity growth and related low investment levels signal that automation-driven productivity gains have not been the cause of manufacturing job decline. Instead, global competition, led by China’s entry as the leading manufacturing power, has been the largest factor—at least so far.30 Mainstream economists proffered a false dream about productivity gains while output fell; they diverted us from the reality of tough international competition with nations following mercantilist policies.

A service economy supersedes a production economy: Success in a highly competitive world rewards nations and regions that produce complex, value-added goods and sell them in international trade. Although world trade in services is growing, world trade in goods is four times as strong. Complex, high-value goods such as energy, communication, and medical technologies make up more than 80 percent of U.S. exports and a significant majority of imports. The currency of world trade is in such high-value goods and will remain so indefinitely. Gradual growth in the services trade surplus ($227 billion in 2015) is dwarfed by the size and continuing growth of the deficit in goods; the former will not offset the latter anytime in the foreseeable future. 

In addition, the production sector leads other sectors in the introduction of productivity gains, which lead to real gains in an economy, providing new wealth that can be distributed. Services are generally slow productivity adaptors. Production is also the most scalable factor in an economy, able to scale growth much more rapidly than services sectors that remain more face-to-face in nature. In other words, manufacturing appears to be indispensable to a modern economy and will not be superseded anytime soon by a services-only economy. Economists should stop pretending otherwise.

Manufacturing in low-wage, low-cost nations must surpass high-wage, high-cost ones: The American public, reflecting mainstream economic views, has long assumed that the U.S. economy must inevitably lose manufacturing to lower-wage nations in Asia and elsewhere. American economists forgot to send that memo to Germany, however. German companies pay much higher manufacturing wages than do U.S. companies, yet have lately been running the largest manufacturing trade surplus in history. The German experience demonstrates that there is no inherent and inevitable manufacturing employment or sectoral decline in advanced economies in competing with lower-wage ones. An advanced economy can keep climbing the value-added ladder in both capital input and human-capital input if its public policies are designed properly.

Developed nations can cede lower-end production and make it up in advanced technologies: Clayton Christensen has argued that established production firms, faced with disruptive innovation, typically cede low-margin production and work to retain leadership through incremental (“sustaining”) advances in high-margin production. But they end up ceding those as well, as the disruptive advances that allow capture of the low end (aided by lower costs and expanded customer bases) mature and enable the capture of the high end.31 

This also resembles what entire nations go through. As noted above, Chinese industry is not simply pursuing its low-cost production advantage but is innovating in rapid production scale-up. Chinese process advances are integrated across regional firms and accelerate production tempo and volume, which are tied to cost savings.32 In other words, Chinese leaders are pursuing an innovative production strategy using “manufacturing-led” innovation for competitive advantage. At the same time, U.S. industry has allowed its historic production leadership to slip, endangering its innovative capacity—again, because production cannot really be delinked from innovation—in important areas of technology. As noted, the U.S. economy, far from leading in advanced technologies, ran a $110 billion trade deficit in advanced technology goods in 2017—a deficit that has been growing.33 Developed nations aren’t necessarily assured of leading in advanced technologies when they cede commodity technologies.

Free trade advantages always outweigh any short-term adverse effects: The data cited above concerning social disruption and manufacturing decline is illustrative of the reality of adverse trade effects. As noted, trade was the leading cause of manufacturing decline in the 2000s.34 Manufacturing decline can be readily mapped; it tends to be regional with significant effects on particular industrial communities. As Amy Goldstein’s Janesville shows, most sectors in communities that lose a major industrial employer tend to contract, from suppliers to indirectly related services firms.35 The decline affects the community’s tax base as real estate values drop, affecting community services like education and health care. 

Homes are typically a family’s greatest asset; if their homes are devalued it is difficult financially for families to leave. Middle-aged workers often have extended families and generations of ties in these localities, with accompanying responsibilities that make it hard for them to bail out, even if they can acquire the skills to find other work. These market frictions exacerbate social disruption; it is very difficult for affected communities and individuals to climb back, so that decline is lasting rather than short term. The effects can be dramatic. Gains from increased trade are often offset, as David Autor and his colleagues have shown, by “deadweight losses” to the economy in affected regions, particularly through the rise in transfer payments for unemployment, health and disability insurance, and food stamps that are required to cope with declines in employment and real wages. These payments are compensatory; they do not reflect economically productive investments and indeed they make such investments harder to finance. 

Back in 2004 Paul Samuelson took on mainstream economics by asking how the United States could be an economic loser with a low-cost, low-wage competitor like China, despite the longstanding Ricardo-based economic theory of “comparative advantage” in trade.36 He noted that if Chinese industry begins to make productivity-enhancing gains, coupled with a low-wage advantage, it could capture some of the comparative advantage that previously belonged to the United States through its productivity dominance. Then, in a Ricardian analysis, he added that unemployment caused by trade never lasts forever, “so it is not that U.S. jobs are ever lost in the long run; it is that the new labor-market clearing real wages has been lowered by this vision of dynamic fair trade.” In other words, U.S. wages would fall to a point where China’s production price advantage is offset.  

That is correct: Wage stagnation in the United States is a growing problem below the upper-middle class, and growing numbers of the working class are moving from middle-class incomes to lower-end, lower-paying services jobs. The U.S. economy still benefits from lower-priced imported goods, but there are now “new net harmful U.S. terms of trade.” 

Dani Rodrik’s new work, Straight Talk on Trade, attacks the economics mainstream for its failure to alert the public that global trade was creating gaps in developed nations between the well-educated, who do well in global trade, and the less-educated, who tend to do badly.37 The academic mainstream, he suggests, continues to articulate a theory of free trade where the benefits are pervasive even when it is not reciprocal (where one side allows open trade and the other does not). He found that, 

[E]conomists can be counted on to parrot the wonders of comparative advantage and free trade whenever trade agreements come up. They have consistently minimalized distributional concerns. . . . [Yet] the standard models of trade . . . typically yield sharp distributional effects: income losses by certain groups of producers or workers are the flip side of the “gains from trade.”38

By holding to perspectives that assumed away such things as trade-related unemployment and income inequality, Rodrik argues, the mainstream favored theory over known realities, misled the public, and blocked a focus on more realistic policies for adapting to a global economy.  

Samuelson had warned years earlier that responding to trade disruption by imposing tariffs could result in economic “arterial sclerosis.” His alarm is reasonable; the economy, including the production supply chain, is now thoroughly globalized and retrenchment from trade (as opposed to pushing back against mercantile practices) would be very problematic. But we should stop systematically underestimating adverse trade effects and refusing to consider improved overall trade strategies and worker support.

The dangers of industrial policy: A debate over industrial policy has been going on for years, and for nearly all the time it has been going on the terms of the debate have been excessively simplified and distorted. Thus, when Japan’s innovations in quality manufacturing harmed U.S. auto and consumer electronic sectors in the 1980s, some in Congress proposed rescuing industrial losers through an industrial bank. Economist Charles Schultz, in a well-known attack on industrial policy, argued in response that the inevitable political forces driving government led it to be ill suited to carefully fashioned industrial interventions.39 

The same debate cropped up again in 2012 when Christina Romer, Chair of President Obama’s Council of Economic Advisors in 2009-10, wrote a New York Times op-ed titled “Do Manufacturers Need Special Treatment?” Although the Obama Administration had been studying responses to the manufacturing decline of 2000-10, she suggested that Americans valued services like haircuts as much as manufactured goods, arguing that goods are not inherently more important than services. She insisted that “public policy needs to go beyond sentiment,” denigrating a policy focus on manufacturing. She was directly attacking her recent boss’s proposals in his State of the Union speech, ten days before, proposing advanced manufacturing institutes modeled on Germany’s Fraunhofer Institutes to nurture new advanced production technologies. In an economy in distress (unemployment was still at 8.3 percent), her comments attracted the manufacturing sector’s ire.  

Rightly so. Romer’s argument that manufacturing jobs are economically equivalent to services jobs was and remains simply wrong. Manufacturing jobs have the highest job multiplier effect; that is, they lead to more jobs throughout the economy than do jobs in other sectors. Manufacturing is also an innovation driver, so it is critical to U.S. research and development and follow-on technological innovation—and therefore to growth. Stephen Ezell pointed out, as well, that manufacturing should be a preferred sector because it is still America’s largest “traded sector”—that is, much of its sales occur abroad, so it spurs exports and accompanying positive trade gains and national wealth. Since goods far outweigh services in trade, Ezell notes, manufacturing will be the leading traded sector “for a long time, and it is simply impossible to have a vibrant economy without a healthy traded sector.”40 

What to make of this eternal debate? The innovation system should certainly be spared the political pork barrel but, pace market fundamentalist dogma, many important governmental interventions can stop far short of that. As growth economist Richard Nelson states:

The conditions for a pure market organization to result in a “Pareto optimal” equilibrium never are fully met. This is recognized, implicitly, in serious policy discussion, where the argument about policy almost never is about whether the situation actually is “optimal,” but rather about whether the problems with the existing regime are sufficiently severe to warrant active new policy measures.41

Precisely in that spirit, the 2011 report issued by the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST)42 outlined manufacturing policies focused on R&D and workforce education, where government has long played a key role, not on an interventionist government picking industrial winners and losers.43 The advanced manufacturing institutes subsequently set up by the Defense, Energy, and Commerce Departments, which were led and cost-shared in most cases at a 2-to-1 ratio by industry, focused on R&D and training in technologies to increase productivity gains.

Mainstream economics has long seen the production function in terms of measurable inputs yielding measurable outputs; it has much more difficulty evaluating, to borrow a term from chemistry, significant phase changes in the production function. New technological-economic paradigms—innovation waves—are infrequent, but when they arrive they spite input/output formulations. Horses are not analogous to railroads just because both are transportation modes; printed books are not analogous to the internet either. Such phase changes have occurred in manufacturing, too: Interchangeable machine-made parts and mass production, along with quality manufacturing, are leading examples. 

Classical economics is not good at understanding these phase changes because they don’t fit equilibrium-biased input/output models. This is particularly important because these new paradigms are usually not implemented by the private sector alone: Railroad development was heavily supported and subsidized by state and Federal governments; the internet was developed through DARPA; interchangeable machine-made parts were nurtured by the War Department in the mid-19th century; and quality production was strongly backed in Japan by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry in the 1970s and 1980s.44 Such paradigm changes cannot often be undertaken in the private sector alone because it cannot manage the high level of risk and lengthy development cycles. Advanced manufacturing technologies, and a corresponding phase change to the new production paradigms they could allow, fall squarely into this category.

Advanced Manufacturing

The beginning of wisdom when it comes to understanding advanced manufacturing is the simple but somehow elusive point that not all industries are created equal in generating growth. Regrettably, mainstream economists have typically been unable to differentiate between the potential of different sectors. The stories of Christina Romer’s equation of haircuts with manufacturing and Michael Boskin’s inability to differentiate between the production of potato chips and computer chips are embarrassing cases in point.45 These experts and others fail to understand that factors such as technological capacity and its ability to generate increasing returns make a real difference. Manufacturing is the classic sector for increasing returns, and, because it dominates technological development in the economy, it is at the core of technological capacity. Creating phase changes using new manufacturing paradigms, arguably then, carries major potential growth benefits. 

New production paradigms can transform the production sector.46 As noted, we have seen new production paradigms before, and we will doubtless see them again. We can, arguably, make them happen, too. So U.S. industry is competing with low-wage, low-cost producers, particularly in Asia: Could it develop new production paradigms to drive up efficiency and drive down costs so it could better compete? We can if we try, if in so doing we take pains to make sure that, as was once the case by accident more than by design, the relevant institutions that need to be involved cohere with one another.

Innovation carries its own rewards; production innovation is no exception. It can enable better products, create new markets, and, just as important, generate good jobs. Scientists and engineers now tell of breakthroughs—new phase changes and paradigms—in a series of technology fields that could significantly enhance the way we produce complex, high-value technologies and goods. These include digital production technologies (new systems of sensors and controls, big data and analytics, robotics, artificial intelligence, new simulation and modeling, and so on); advanced materials and composites; biofabrication; mass customization (the ability to produce small customized lots at mass-production costs, through 3D printing and computerized controls); nanofabrication; photonics; and new distribution efficiencies. These new advances, in turn, require new processes and business models to implement them. Hardware must be matched to “software,” so to speak, for the paradigm to work. Not only are new jobs inherent in these new “hourglasses” (not necessarily at the production moment), but some of the technologies, like 3D printing, have the potential to re-localize supply chains, generating additional jobs.

Developing such new integrative paradigms is the core concept behind advanced manufacturing. Advanced manufacturing institutes have been devised as a means to nurture such paradigms. They are young and few Americans know they exist, but they represent a major policy change for, as already noted, the disconnect in the United States between R&D and production has limited such thinking. Previously, the policy issues in manufacturing concerned tax, trade, currency, and regulatory policy; innovation was not on the table. Although these other policy areas remain important, improvements in them tend to be incremental and marginal. Gains from innovation can be more dynamic, as the advent of mass production and quality manufacturing indicate. This is the first time—at least since Sematech (Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology), a public-private DARPA-supported collaboration dating from 1986-87—that an innovation system approach to manufacturing has been considered. 

Based on recommendations from the industry-university Advanced Manufacturing Partnership collaboration,47 an effort began in 2012 to use new manufacturing institutes to create new production paradigms in 14 production areas, shared across the supply chains of large and small firms and across industry sectors. The costs of the institutes are shared among Federal agencies, industry, and state governments. 

Why institutes? One key reason is that the majority of the U.S. manufacturing sector consists of small and midsize firms that are risk-averse and thinly capitalized; they are not in a position to perform research or adopt new technologies and processes unless the costs and efficiency gains are demonstrated and understood. Although larger firms once assisted their supply chains in this role, providing a vertical integration function, in an era of intense global competition they have often cut back to their core competencies. They are therefore less able to assist suppliers and have their own competitive problems in adapting. As Suzanne Berger puts it, manufacturing firms are increasingly “home alone.”48 

Larger firms, too, need to collaborate to share the risks and costs of changing to new production paradigms. Taking a page from Germany’s Fraunhofer system, institutes act as test beds, providing a range of industries and firms with opportunities to collaborate on, test, and prove prototypes for advanced production technologies and processes. 

Another gap institutes can fill is talent. Technical workers must be trained to work with the advanced technologies and develop processes and routines necessary for introducing them into production systems. Otherwise they simply will go nowhere.

Advanced manufacturing policies are now hanging in the balance. Germany and China, as well as other competitors, are now making much larger investments than the United States has considered. But now manufacturing has had its “Sputnik moment”: the 2016 presidential election and the working-class backlash it illuminated. Yet the current Administration, although it embraced manufacturing during the campaign, appears to be merely tolerating the manufacturing institutes and related innovation policies rather than advancing them. 

Outside of government, much will depend on whether mainstream economists accept these ideas. While some—Rodrik, Autor, Samuelson, Spence, Freeman, and others—advocate a “rethink” of the labor market and trade aspects of these issues, this view is by no means pervasive. 

Meanwhile, neither of the two major U.S. political parties seems to get the basics of the growth economics that lies behind this new innovation focus on manufacturing. How did the parties miss growth economics? Simple: As John Maynard Keynes famously wrote, “Practical men who believe themselves to be quite exempt from any intellectual influence, are usually the slaves of some defunct economist.” 

Our political parties appear to have locked in long ago on classical economics. The politics of each is organized around one of the two dominant factors that classical economics thought was responsible for growth: capital supply and labor supply. Republicans have focused on capital supply, with its leaders returning again and again to the popular political well of lowering marginal tax rates. Democrats focus on labor supply—improving education, health, and income in labor markets. Both matter and remain significant, although Solow demonstrated many years ago that these factors are responsible for only some 20 percent of growth. But the American political class has missed almost entirely the critical role of technological innovation and its power to spur innovation-driven growth. Advanced manufacturing is now a key asset in such innovation. 

Economist Benjamin Friedman’s noted 2005 book, The Moral Consequences of Economic Growth,49 showed that periods of higher economic growth tend to be accompanied historically by more tolerance, optimism, and egalitarian perspectives; declining economic growth periods are typically characterized by pessimism, nostalgia, xenophobia, and violence. While the American upper-middle class is doing fine, much of the remainder of the population has been less than fine. Productivity growth and related investment are at low levels despite their demonstrated role in driving growth. Unless growth agendas like advanced manufacturing policies are supported adequately and consistently, we are in for a difficult time ahead. 

We now are seeing what may prove to be an advanced wave of social externalities accompanying the economic decline affecting the American working class. If automation piles on new labor profile dislocations in the years ahead, things may get considerably worse unless we plan to offset its effects. Economists and the political system they influence need to get with the program. 

1Solow, Growth Theory: An Exposition (Oxford University Press, 2000), pp. ix-xxvi. 

2Romer, “Endogenous Technological Change,” Journal of Political Economy, v. 98 (1990), pp. 72-102.

3William B. Bonvillian and Peter L. Singer, Advanced Manufacturing: The New American Innovation Policies (MIT Press, 2018), pp. 9, 52, 59, 143, 188. 

4“Manufacturing Employment,” Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Current Labor Statistics (CLS); Robert E. Scott, “Manufacturing Job Loss: Trade, Not Productivity, Is the Culprit,” Economic Policy Institute, August 11, 2015. See detailed review of manufacturing job loss in Robert D. Atkinson, Luke A. Stewart, Scott M. Andes, and Stephen Ezell, “Worse Than the Great Depression: What the Experts are Missing About American Manufacturing Decline,” The Information Technology & Innovation Foundation (ITIF) (March 2012).

5“Employment in Manufacturing Industries,” BLS, CLS.

6“Investments in Private Fixed Assets by Industry,” Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA). See analysis in Atkinson et al., “Worse Than the Great Depression,” pp. 47-58; Luke A. Stewart & Robert D. Atkinson, “Restoring America’s Lagging Investment in Capital Goods,” ITIF (October 2013), p. 1. 

7Scott, “Manufacturing Job Loss”; Atkinson et al., “Worse Than the Great Depression,” pp. 30-42.

8“Labor Productivity and Costs: Productivity Change in the Manufacturing Sector,” BLS; Scott, “Manufacturing Job Loss.” See also Atkinson et al., “Worse than the Great Depression,” p. 39.

9Atkinson et al., “Worse than the Great Depression,” p. 42.

10“Foreign Trade, Exports, Imports and Balance of Goods by Selected NAICS-Based Product Code, Exhibit 1 in FT-900 Supplement for 12/15,” BEA, February 5, 2016; “Trade in Goods with Advanced Technology Products, 2015, Exhibit 16,” BEA.

11“China Has a Dominant Share, Citing estimates in the United Nation’s National Accounts Main Aggregates Database, Based on the International Classification of Manufacturing (ISIC D),” Manufacturers Alliance for Productivity and Innovation (MAPI).

12Ernie Preeg, “Farewell Report on U.S. Trade in Manufactures,” MAPI, August 15, 2016. 

13William B. Bonvillian, “Donald Trump Voters and the Decline of American Manufacturing,” Issues in Science and Technology (Summer 2016).

14Melissa S. Kearney, Brad Hershbein, and Elisa Jacome, “Profiles of Change: Employment, Earnings and Occupations from 1990-2013,” Brookings Institution, April 21, 2015. 

15Kearney et al., “Profiles of Change.”

16“Chart: Real Household Incomes: Cumulative Growth, based on Census Bureau and Bureau of Labor Statistics Data,” in Doug Short, “Household Incomes: The Decline of the Middle Class, Advisor Perspectives,” September 16, 2016.

17“Chart: Real Household Incomes: The Growing Gap between Median and Mean,” in Short, “Household Incomes.” 

18Freeman, America Works (Russell Sage Foundation, 2007).  

19Claudia Goldin & Lawrence F. Katz, The Race Between Education and Technology (Harvard University Press, 2008).

20Andrew Stettner, Joel S. Yudken, and Michael McCormack, “Why Manufacturing Jobs are Worth Saving,” Century Foundation, June 13, 2017.

21See David H. Autor, David Dorn, and Gordon H. Hanson, “The China Shock: Learning from Labor Market Adjustment to Large Changes in Trade,” National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper No. 21906 (January 2016).

22A. Michael Spence, “The Impact of Globalization on Income and Employment: The Downside of Integrating Markets,” Foreign Affairs (July/August 2011), pp. 28-41.

23Bonvillian & Singer, Advanced Manufacturing, pp. 60-61.

24Dan Meckstroth, “The Manufacturing Value Chain Is Bigger than You Think,” MAPI, February 16, 2016. 

25Bonvillian & Singer, Advanced Manufacturing, pp. 57-8.

26See Nils Gilman, “Technoglobalism and Its Discontents,” The American Interest (November/December 2016).

27Suzanne Berger, How We Compete: What Companies Around the World Are Doing to Make It in Today’s Global Economy (Doubleday Currency, 2005), pp. 251–77.

28Bonvillian, “Donald Trump’s Voters and the Decline of American Manufacturing,” p. 31.

29Berger, Making in America (MIT Press, 2013), pp. 28-33.

30Adams Nager, “Trade vs. Productivity: What Caused U.S. Manufacturing Decline and How to Revive it,” ITIF, February 13, 2017; Scott, “Manufacturing Job Loss.”

31Clayton Christensen, The Innovator’s Dilemma (Harvard Business School Press, 1997). 

32Jonas Nahm & Edward S. Steinfeld, “Scale-Up Nation: China’s Specialization in Innovative Manufacturing,” World Development No. 54 (2013), pp. 288-300. 

33“Foreign Trade Balance 2017,” U.S. Census Bureau.

34Nager, “Trade vs. Productivity”; Scott, “Manufacturing Job Loss.”

35Goldstein, Janesville, An American Story (Simon & Shuster, 2017). 

36Samuelson, “Where Ricardo and Mill Rebut and Confirm Arguments of Mainstream Economists Supporting Globalization,” Journal of Economic Perspectives (Summer 2004), pp. 135-37, 144-45. This work builds on his earlier Stolper-Samuelson theorem: Where there are two goods and two factors of production (capital and labor), and specialization remains incomplete, one of the two factors—the one that is more scarce—must end up worse off as a result of opening up to international trade in in absolute terms. This anticipated the effect of globalization on developed nation wages and income distribution. Wolfgang Stolper & Paul A. Samuelson, “Protection and Real Wages,” Review of Economic Studies Vol. 9 (1941), pp. 58-73. 

37Rodrik, Straight Talk on Trade: Ideas for a Sane World (Princeton University Press, 2018).

38Rodrik, Straight Talk on Trade, p. x. See also Suzanne Berger, “Globalization Survived Populism Once Before—and It Can Again,” The Boston Review (February 2018).  

39Schultze, “Industrial Policy: A Dissent,” The Brookings Review (Fall 1983), pp. 3-12.

40Ezell, “Our Manufacturers Need a U.S. Competiveness Strategy, Not Special Treatment,” ITIF, February 9, 2016.

41Nelson, “Building Effective ‘Innovation Systems’ Versus Dealing with ‘Market Failures’ as Ways of Thinking about Technology Policy,” Manchester Business School Working Paper No. 548 (2008), p. 7.

42“Report to the President on Ensuring American Leadership in Advanced Manufacturing,” President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), June 24, 2011.

43For a discussion of appropriate governmental roles in technology development see Gregory Tassey, “Make America Great Again: Investing in Research, Technology Development, Workforce Education and Modern Technological Infrastructure Is the Only Prescription That Will Maintain the Health of the U.S. Economy,” Issues in Science and Technology (Winter 2018), pp. 72-8.

44Bonvillian & Singer, Advanced Manufacturing, pp. 18-21, 50.

45Compare Rob Atkinson, “Manufacturing Policy Is Not Industrial Policy,” ITIF, February 6, 2012, with Jagdish Bhagwati, “The Computer Chip vs. Potato Chip Debate,” Moscow Times, September 2, 2010.

46These issues, including the advanced manufacturing institutes, are discussed in detail in Bonvillian & Singer, Advanced Manufacturing, pp. 101-186.

47“Report to the President on Capturing Domestic Competitive Advantage in Advanced Manufacturing,” PCAST, July 2012; “Report to the President on Accelerating U.S. Advanced Manufacturing,” PCAST, October 2014. 

48Berger, Making in America, p. 20.

49Friedman, The Moral Consequences of Economic Growth (Vintage Books, 2005).

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